English is one of the most commonly included sections in all entrance examinations. In the CLAT exam, the question paper comprises 20% of the English language. 

There are many topics included in the subject, out of which Statement & Conclusion is one such topic that tests your analytical thinking skills. 

Every year, a good number of questions typically, 3-4 questions from this topic are asked, which is why it is considered to be quite important. There is no doubt that it is a very scoring topic once understood well.

The objective of this concept is to test your ability to draw reasonable conclusions from statements given in the question. As lawyers and potential jurors, a wordplay is an integral tool that can be used to distort certain facts to suit your needs. The use of language or wordplay is an effective way to clarify one's position, but one must be knowledgeable of the different types of statements that can be used.

Statement and Conclusions for CLAT

Statement and conclusion questions focus almost entirely on logical reasoning. In this type of question, some statements are presented followed by inferential conclusions that can be derived from the given statements. From the information given in the statement, you must decide which of the conclusions follows logically and beyond any reasonable doubt.

An essential feature of such questions is their conclusion. Some of the conclusions follow directly from the facts presented in the statement, they can be easily and quickly retracted. The facts given in the states support the conclusion. In some cases, however, a conclusion can be indirect, making it very hard to judge whether an error was made.

There may be a situation where one or more of the Conclusions may follow, and sometimes all may follow. It may also happen that neither of them follows. 

It depends on the reader's ability to analyze the statement in order to draw the proper conclusion. Follow tips on solving CLAT English Questions for a better understanding of topics and strategies to score full marks. 

Different Types of Question 

Questions from this section are of several types. Therefore, we have categorized the problems into two types which we explain below.

  1. One statement followed by two conclusions.

In this type of question, a statement is followed by two conclusions. You must determine which conclusion follows the given statement and select the correct option accordingly.

Example-

Statement: Yoga and meditation are good for health. 

Conclusion: 

  • All healthy people do yoga and meditation
  • Doing yoga is more beneficial than doing meditation

(a) If only conclusion 1 follows

(b) If only conclusion 2 follows

(c) If both follow

(d) If neither follows

Solution: (d) If neither follows

Yoga & Medication is good for health. Just by this, we cannot simply assume that all healthy people practice yoga and meditation. People don't always do things that are good for their health. Perhaps some healthy people do it, but we cannot be sure if all healthy people do it. Secondly, doing yoga is more beneficial than doing meditation. It is stated in the statement that only a and b are beneficial for health, however, the conclusion states that a is better than b. The statement is therefore in complete contradiction to the conclusion. As a result, none of the conclusions mentioned above can be drawn.

  1. Two or more statements and a conclusion

This type of question comprises a statement or a series of statements followed by some conclusion. Following each statement, select the conclusion.

Example-

Statement:

  • The happiness derived from external materials is momentary.
  • The source of everlasting happiness has to be within.

Conclusion: 

  • Happiness does not come from the outside.
  • Cinema is not a lasting source of happiness.

(a) If Only conclusion 1 follows

(b) If Only conclusions 2 follows

(c) If both conclusions follow

(d) If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows.

(e) If conclusion 1 or 2 follows

Solution: (b)

There is only one conclusion to be drawn since happiness experienced through cinema cannot be compared with happiness originating from one's inner self, while statement one stands for the fact that everlasting happiness originates from within.

How should you approach such questions?

There are few rules while solving Statement and Conclusion Questions that are explained below. 

When more than one statement is given, the information provided in each statement should be correlated to arrive at a conclusion. 

When a statement is given followed by two conclusions, one and two. It is necessary to believe the statement is true even if it seems to contradict commonly known facts. 

You need to decide which of the given conclusions can be directly derived from the given statement and indicate your answer. 

Tips & Tricks to solve

  • If a statement is composed of two or more sentences, then the sentences must be related, and they should not contradict each other.
  • Do not search for truthful notions. The only requirement for answering the question is the information provided in their statement. It is important not to make any assumptions.
  • Examine the statement and the conclusions carefully for keywords that are common between them
  • If there are multiple conclusions that can be applied to the statement, candidates must ensure the conclusions they select are coherent with each other.
  • Don't judge a statement by its length. Make sure that you carefully read the statement before you draw any conclusion.
  • In these types of questions, candidates often lose a lot of marks because of negative marking. Make sure you do not guess the answers on this topic.

Solved Sample Statement and Conclusion Questions

Here are few sample questions based on statements and conclusion topics. Solve previous year CLAT question papers to get an idea about the type of questions asked and their difficulty level. Each of the following questions presents a statement followed by two conclusions. 

(a) If only conclusion 1 follows

(b) If only conclusion 2 follows

(c) If both follow

(d) If neither follows

Q1. Statements: In a one-day cricket match, the team scored 200 runs. A total of 160 runs were scored by spinners.

Conclusions: 

  • We have 80% spinners on our team.
  • The opening batsman was a spinner.

Solution: (d) If neither follows

As stated above, the statement indicates that 80% of all runs were made by spinners, so one does not follow. There is no mention of the opening batsman in the statement, so the second cannot be inferred.

Q2. Statements: 

  • India is becoming more industrialized.
  • The problem of pollution is a result of industrialization.

Conclusions: 

  • The nations with the most pollution are industrialized.
  • There is a possibility that India will become polluted.

Solution: (b) If only conclusion 2 follows

Conclusion 2 is correct because it discusses the possibility of India becoming polluted due to industrialization. Conclusion I is invalid as no mention of pollution has been made.

Q3. Statements:

  • Internet is an interconnected network of computers.
  • Input and output devices are present on all computers.

Conclusions: 

  • The internet is an output device
  • The Internet cannot be created by a single computer.

Solution: (b) If only conclusion 2 follows

Only conclusion 2 follows since the internet must have computer connections on at least two computers. All computers having input and output device does not make the internet necessarily an output device.

Q4. Statements: The employees of Green Chillies Pvt Limited. Work six days a week, while Yellow Mustard Private Limited workers work five days per week. Both companies have a nine-hour workday.

Conclusions: 

  • Green chillies Pvt. Ltd. employees. Work more than the employees of Yellow Mustard Pvt.
  • Green Chillies Pvt. Ltd. employees. Get paid more than the employees working at Yellow Mustard Pvt.

Solution: (a) If only conclusion 1 follows

Green Chillies employees work 54 hours per week, while Yellow Mustard employees only work 45 hours. Therefore, (I) follows logically. 

We are not provided with any information about the salary/remuneration paid at each of the aforementioned firms. Therefore, (II) does not follow.

Q5. Statements: Sachin was humiliated in front of his colleagues by the manager.

Conclusions: 

  • Sachin's manager didn't like him.
  • Sachin was unpopular with his colleagues.

Solution: (d) If neither follows

Sachin's manager might have humiliated him not because he disliked him, but because he was negligent. Therefore, I do not follow. Moreover, it is also impossible to determine Sachin's relationship with his colleagues from this statement. Therefore, II also does not follow.

FAQ's

What is the difference between a statement and a conclusion?

A premise is a statement in an argument that provide reason for the conclusion where as conclusion is a statement in an argument that indicates the exact solution.

What is required to reach the given conclusion?

You should think only about the information given in the statement to reach a conclusion.

What are the three elements of a conclusion in a statement?

  • The answer
  • A summary of the main point
  • Final sentence