Updated On : September 16, 2023
Summary: With Class 12 board exams around the corner, understanding the CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry is crucial for effective preparation. This article offers a detailed look into the Class 12 Chemistry syllabus, its structure, and sample questions for a thorough understanding.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has designed the Class 12 Chemistry syllabus to provide a firm grounding in the subject, offering an ideal mix of theoretical concepts and practical applications.
As Class 12 is a pivotal year in a student's academic life, mastering the Chemistry syllabus is essential for those planning to appear for various competitive exams or wishing to pursue further studies in science.
This article elucidates the CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry, the type and number of questions appearing in the board exams, and provides sample questions to assist in preparation.
The subject code for Chemistry, as per CBSE guidelines, is 043.
The CBSE Class 12 Chemistry paper typically consists of a mix of:
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The Class 12 Chemistry syllabus is divided into the following main units:
|S.No||CBSE 12 Chemistry Syllabus||CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus - Marks|
|4||d -and f -Block Elements||7|
|6||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes||6|
|7||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers||6|
|8||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids||8|
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals – metallic character, ionisation enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
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Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, and uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins - Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bonds, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Sample Questions Asked in the exam are briefly given below to provide what you might encounter in the final exam paper; here are sample questions based on the syllabus:
Which of the following is an example of a coordination compound?
Understanding the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry syllabus is the first step in preparing for the board exams. Given the subject's complexity and the range of topics it covers, a detailed look into the syllabus and the type of questions can make a significant difference in your exam preparation strategy. Armed with this information, you are now better equipped to tackle Class 12 Chemistry with confidence and competence. Happy Studying!
Frequently Asked Questions
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