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Learn about CBSE Class 12 Political Science Examination

Author : Akash Kumar Singh

Updated On : September 16, 2023


Summary: Explore the complete CBSE Class 12 Political Science syllabus, which covers the complexities of global politics as well as India's post-independence political scene.

This article provides insights into the course structure, highlights of each unit, and vital preparation recommendations for succeeding in the subject area. Dive deep into global politics, understand India's political path, and prepare for academic achievement. 

CBSE Class 12 Political Science provides students with a deep understanding of the operation of governments, the complexities of world politics, and an understanding of the ideals that form the foundations of the world's largest democracy - India. This article discusses the syllabus, exam format, and preparation tips. 

Understanding the Relevance of Political Science 

CBSE Class 12 Political Science is more than just an academic subject; it is a journey into the historical and contemporary dynamics of politics in India and around the world. The political environment throughout the world is continually changing in this age of digital knowledge and fast globalisation.  

Students can acquire the capacity to critically analyse global events, appreciate the complexities of diplomatic relations, and gain a feel of the wider picture that drives world politics by delving deeply into this subject. 

Furthermore, the CBSE Class 12 Political Science syllabus educates students about India's own path, from the post-independence battles to its current position on the global arena. As a result, studying blue print of political science class 12 CBSE is more than just an exam prerequisite; it is also a necessary tool for any informed global citizen. 

CBSE 12th Political Science Syllabus Key Highlights 


Political Science  

Subject Code 




Project/ Practical 


Check: CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Exam Pattern 

CBSE Class 12 Political Science 2024 Course Structure 

The CBSE Political Science Class 12 curriculum is divided into two parts. Part A contains 7 units, whereas Part 2 contains 8 units

Chapter No. 

Chapter Name 

Marks Allotted 


The End of Bipolarity  

Contemporary Centres of Power  

Contemporary South Asia 

International Organizations 

Security in the Contemporary World 

Environment and Natural Resources  






Challenges of Nation-Building 

Era of One-Party Dominance 

Politics of Planned Development 

India’s External Relations  

Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System 

The Crisis of Democratic Order  

Regional Aspirations 

Recent Developments in Indian Politics 






Check: CBSE Toppers Talk

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024: Course Content 

Chapter No. and Name 

Learning outcome with specific competencies 


The End of Bipolarity 

Topics to be focused: 

a) The Soviet System 

b) Gorbachev and the disintegration 

c) Causes and Consequences of disintegration of Soviet Union 

d) Shock Therapy and its Consequences 

e) New entities in world politics Russia Balkan States Central Asian States 

f) India's relations with Russia and other post-communist countries 

  • Identify the basic features of the Soviet System. 
  • Discuss the background and outcome of disintegration of the Soviet Union. 
  • Examine the consequences of unipolar world 
  • Assess the features of Shock Therapy 
  • Probe into the recent happenings in the Post-Communist Countries. 
  • Trace the developments between India & Russia 

Contemporary Centres of Power 

Topics to be focused: 

a) European Union 

b) Association of Southeast Asian Nations 

c) Rise of China as an economic power 

d) Japan and South Korea as emerging powers) 

  • Compare and contrast the importance of European Union and ASEAN. 
  • Evaluate the extent of rise of Chinese economy and its impact on world politics. 
  • Summarize India’s relations with China. 

Contemporary South Asia 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Military and Democracy in Pakistan and Bangladesh 

b) Monarchy and Democracy in Nepal 

c) Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Sri Lanka 

d) India-Pakistan Conflicts 

e) India and its Neighbours 

f) Peace and Cooperation 

  • Identify & locate the seven countries of the SouthAsian region. 
  • Appreciate the mixed record of democracy in the South Asian region. 
  • Examine the role of Political leaders 
  • Reflect upon the causes of various conflicts and movements in this region. 
  • Justify the creation of SAARC 
  • Understand the involvement of US and China in South Asia. 

International Organizations 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Meaning and importance of International Organisations 

b) Evolution of the UN 

c) Structure and function of International Organisations 

d) Principal Organs of UN 

e) Reform of the UN after Cold War 

f) Reform of Structures, Processes and Jurisdiction of the UN 

g) India and the UN Reforms h) Key Agencies: IMF, World Bank, WTO, ILO, IAEA. 

i) NGO: Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch. 

j) Implications and Future of International Organizations 

  • Define International Organization 
  • Appreciate the role of United Nations and its agencies 
  • Reflect on the events taking place in the post-cold war era 
  • Understand the need for reforms in the United Nations 


Security in the Contemporary World 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Meaning and Type of Security. 

b) Traditional concept of security 

c) Non-tradition notions of Security. 

d) New Sources of Threats 

e) Cooperative Security 

f) India’s Security strategy 

  • Recognize the causes of security threats 
  • Enhance analytical skills to provide solutions to security concerns. 
  • Develop critical thinking about the role of various stakeholders in ensuring security today. 


Environment and Natural Resources 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Environmental Concerns 

b) Global Commons 

c) Common but differentiated Responsibilities 

d) India’s Stand on Environment Issues 

e) Environmental Movements 

f) Resource Geopolitics 

g) Rights of Indigenous peoples  

  • Enlist and explain the facts related to global environmental issues 
  • Recognize and understand the need to conserve critical resources 
  • Demonstrate knowledge and appreciation towards 
  • India’s responsibility in protecting environment 
  • Realize the need to conserve resources and exhibit responsibility towards prudential use to facilitate sustainable development 
  • Know about the nature of concerns of indigenous communities and understand how the governments of different countries respond to their plea 


Topics to be focused: 

a) Concept of globalisation 

b) Causes and Consequences of globalisation 

c) India and globalisation 

d) Resistance to globalisation 

e) India and resistance to globalisation 

  • Appreciate the significance of Globalization 
  • Elucidate the political, economic, and cultural dimensions of Globalisation. 
  • Critically evaluate the impact of globalisation on India. 
  • Draw attention to resistance movements to Globalisation and envisage its future trends. 


Challenges of Nation Building 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Challenges for the new Nation. 

Three Challenges. 

b) Partition: Displacement and Rehabilitation. 

Consequences of Partition. 

c) Integration of Princely States. 

The problem 

Government’s approach 



d) Reorganisation of States. 

  • Analyse the challenges which Independent India faced. 
  • Describe the factors that led to the partition of India. 
  • Explain the circumstances under which different princely states signed the Instrument of Accession. 
  • Assess how language became the basis of reorganisation of the states. 
  • Evaluate the role played by leaders in Nation Building. 

Era of One-Party Dominance 

Topics to be focussed: 

a) Challenge of building democracy. 

b) Congress dominance in the first three general elections. 

Nature of Congress dominance 

Congress as a social and ideological coalition. 

Tolerance and management of Factions 

c) Emergence of opposition parties 

  • Appreciate the sustenance of democratic politics in the country. 
  • Evaluate the electoral politics post-Independence 
  • Assess the dominance of the Indian National Congress from 1952 to 1967. 
  • Evaluate the role of Opposition parties 

Politics of Planned Development 

Topics to be focussed: 

a) Political contestation. 

Ideas of Development. 


Planning Commission 

b) The Early Initiatives 

The First Five Year Plan. 

Rapid Industrialisation 

  • Identify the varied options considered by the government to balance growth and socio-economic justice. 
  • Know the difference between Left and Right Ideology 
  • Understand the need for the formation of the Planning Commission. 
  • Appreciate the need for strategic long-term development programme and policies 

India’s External Relations 

Topics to be focussed: 

a) International Context 

b) The Policy of Non-Alignment. 

Nehru’s role 

Distance from two camps. 

Afro Asian Unity 

c) Peace and conflict with China 

The Chinese Invasion 1962 

War and Peace with Pakistan 

Bangladesh War 1971 

d) India’s Nuclear Policy. 

  • Recognise the significance of NAM 
  • Interpret, compare and contrast multi-lateral aspects of Indo-China relationship 
  • Demonstrate knowledge on Indo-Pak wars 
  • Appreciate the steps taken by Indian government to develop military capacity 
  • Reflect and introspect on the choices that the country must consider for the cause of development and peace building 

Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Challenge of Political Succession 

From Nehru to Shastri 

From Shastri to Indira Gandhi 

b) Fourth General Election 1967 

Context of the Election. 

Non Congressism 

Electoral Verdict 



c) Split in the Congress 

Indira vs the Syndicate 

Presidential Election 1969 

d) The 1971 Election and Restoration of Congress 

The outcome and after Restoration? 

  • Understand the challenges of political succession after Nehru. 
  • Evaluate the opposition unity and the Congress split as a challenge to Congress dominance. 
  • Compare and contrast the new Congress and the old Congress. 
  • Summarise the initiatives taken by Indira Gandhi to overcome the challenges faced by her 
  • Analyse the process of restoration of the Congress system 

The Crisis of Democratic Order 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Background to Emergency. 

Economic Context. 

Gujarat and Bihar Movements 

Conflict with Judiciary 

b) Declaration of Emergency 

Crisis and response Consequences 

c) Lessons of the Emergency. 

d)Politics after Emergency. 

Lok Sabha Elections 1977 

Janata Government 


  • Understand the causes and consequences of Emergency 
  • Examine the lessons of Emergency 
  • Evaluate the rule of Janata Government 

Regional Aspirations 

Topics to be focused: 

a) Region and the Nation Indian Approach 

Areas of Tension 

Jammu and Kashmir 

Roots of the Problem 

External and Internal disputes 

Politics since 1948 

Insurgency and After 2022 and Beyond 

b) Punjab 

Political Context 

Cycle of Violence 

Road to Peace 

c) The Northeast 

Demand for autonomy 

Secessionist Movements 

Movements against outsiders 

Assam and National Integration 

  • Discuss the implications of regional demands. 
  • Analyse the importance of integrity in India. 
  • Appreciate the initiatives taken by the government in dealing with regional aspirations 

Recent Developments in Indian Politics 

Topics to be focused 

a) Context of 1990s 

b) Era of Coalition Alliance Politics 

c) Political rise if the Backward Classes Mandal Implemented Political Fallouts 

d) Communalism, Secularism and Democracy.  

Ayodhya Dispute Demolition and after 

e) Emergence of New Consensus 

f) Lok Sabha Elections 2004 

g) Growing Consensus 

  • Understand momentous changes taking place in the nation since 1989 
  • Trace the rise and growth of BJP. 
  • Identify the areas of growing consensus 

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Prescribed Books: 

1. Contemporary World Politics, Class XII, Published by NCERT 

2. Politics in India since Independence, Class XII, Published by NCERT 

3. Added Reference Material available with the document in the Annexure 

Check: CBSE Class 12 Political Science Marking Scheme

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Preparation Tips 

  • Understand the Concepts: Political Science isn't about rote learning. The subject demands an understanding of concepts. Delve deep into topics, analyze and understand different perspectives. 
  • Stay Updated: Political scenarios change rapidly. Regularly read newspapers and watch news debates to have a broader perspective on the global political scenario. 
  • Revise: Regular revision is the key to remember all the important points, especially before the exams. 
  • Solve Sample Papers: This will help you understand the format, get a feel of the actual exam, and learn time management. 
  • Seek Guidance: Don't hesitate to approach your teacher or peers if you have doubts. Discussions can lead to better clarity. 
  • Make Notes: Creating your own notes using flow charts and diagrams can be very effective. It aids in quick revision and better retention. 
  • Stay Calm and Confident: Don't stress yourself too much before the exams. Believe in your preparation. 

Check: CBSE Class 12 Humanities Question Papers

Finally, CBSE guide class 12 political science is a comprehensive topic that provides students with a thorough understanding of global politics and India's post-independence political history.

Students might not only perform well but also develop a deep awareness of political events and their ramifications with the correct attitude and preparation approach. 

Also check: CBSE Political Science Coaching

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