Updated On : June 8, 2023

**Summary:** One of the most interesting and, at the same time, the most confusing subject is logical reasoning. If you get the topics cleared, you will have fun solving the questions. As there are many sub-topics in logical reasoning, we will specifically discuss the coding and decoding section. We will learn lots of interesting tricks to help you solve the questions in lesser time. Go through the article thoroughly, and you will definitely find it interesting.

Coding and decoding is a really interesting topic. However, most students find it hard to understand the logic behind the questions.

So here we are with a full explanation of how coding and decoding work and how you can easily get to your solutions.

We won't be discussing the entire coding and decoding topic; instead, we will focus solely on letter coding. We have limited space for explaining to you how the concept works with examples. And covering the whole topic in this single page will probably make you sleep halfway. So wasting no time, lets begin with the topic.

In this type of coding and decoding, we mark letters as numbers to ease the process of applying logic. This simple concept is used for many other reasons and is an even better way to understand the Letter Coding concept for IPMAT.

As you know, there are 26 alphabets, each of which is assigned a number against them. You can see below how it is done-

Letter |
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Code Number |
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 |

Before proceeding further, make sure to memorize this table to save you a lot of time. You can prepare a chart of this table and paste it on the wall; this will help you memorize the codes easily.

The organizers of **IPMAT** really wish aspirants to be smarter and faster with their logic. They are fond of putting several of these types of questions in the paper. So if you know the exact logic, you have better chances of getting into IIMs.

There is various kind of logic tricks you need to check before you attempt any question. You will get to know about them one by one. However, you will have to apply each logic on each of the questions to find out exactly what logic you need to find the correct answer.

Before moving on to the logic tricks, we must be aware of the opposite letters. Opposite letters are the letters that are cross-connected from the first to the last alphabet, as you can see in the table below-

Opposite Letters |
A—â–ºZ | B—â–ºY | C—â–ºX | D—â–ºW | E—â–ºV | F—â–ºU | G—â–ºT | H—â–ºS | I—â–ºR | J—â–ºQ | K—â–ºP | L—â–ºO | M—â–ºN |

Opposite Numbers |
1—â–º26 | 2—â–º25 | 3—â–º24 | 4—â–º23 | 5—â–º22 | 6—â–º21 | 7—â–º20 | 8—â–º19 | 9—â–º18 | 10—â–º17 | 11—â–º16 | 12—â–º15 | 13—â–º14 |

The different logics you need to check on each question are as follows-

*Check:** IPMAT Mock Series *

Let's understand this with an example-

**Q- **In a certain code language, "WATER " is written as "DZGVI". How is "SPACE" written in that code?

(a)BQMKH

(b) KZGTR

(c)HKZXV

(d)None of these

**Solution-** Here, we need to find a valid logic to relate the given word WATER with the word DZGVI. By applying the first logic rule, we get to see that each letter in DZGVI is an opposite letter of the word WATER.

So, a valid logic is found here; hence we can apply the same on SPACE to find the correct answer. So looking at the table above, we can conclude that HKZXV is the opposite word for SPACE.

Hence option *(c) *is the correct choice.

Let's understand this with an example-

**Q- **In a certain code language, "HEAVEN" is written as "AEHNEV". How is "ANIMAL" written in that code?

(a) INALAM

(b) LAMINA

(c) LAIIMA

(d) None of these

**Solution-** Here, we need to find a valid logic to relate the given word HEAVEN with the word AEHNEV. By applying the first logic rule, we get to see that the letters of the word HEAVEN are not opposite to AEHNEV.

So we will apply the second rule, which is position-based logic. Here we will check and compare the positions of both the given words. Now we get to see that the first three letters are reverses, i.e., H—â–ºA, E—â–ºE, and A—â–ºH, and the same is applied to the last 3 letters, i.e., V—â–ºN, E—â–ºE and N—â–ºV.

After applying this logic to the questioned word ANIMAL, we get A—â–ºI, N—â–ºN, I—â–ºA and M—â–ºL, A—â–ºA and L—â–ºM. The final word we get is INALAM.

Hence we get option *(a)* as the correct one.

Let's understand this with an example-

**Q-** In a certain code language, "GREEN" is written as "JUHHQ". How is "KELLY" written in that code?

*(a) HNOOB *

*(b) NHOOB *

*(c) XHROH
(d) None of these*

**Solution-** Here, we need to find a valid logic to relate the given word GREEN with the word JUHHQ. By applying the first logic rule, we get to see that the letters of the word GREEN are not opposite to JUHHQ.

By applying the second logic rule, we get to see there is no sign of position-based sequencing.

Now we will apply the third rule of formal logic. As we apply this rule, we will also introduce addition and subtraction in the scene, and that will happen because we will allot the given numbers for each letter. Now we will check the number for the word GREEN—â–º7, 18, 5, 5, 14 and the numbers for the other word JUHHQ—â–º10, 21, 8, 8, 17. By comparing both numbers, we find a common logic that there there is an addition of 3 in each set of alphabets.

So applying this logic to the questioned word KELLY, we will see —â–º 11, 5, 12, 12, 25. So we will add 3 in each, and we will get 14, 8, 15, 15, 28. *(here, we have 28, but the table shows numbers only up to 26. In this case, if the number exceeds 26 we will reset and count the extra numbers from the start, i.e., 1, 2, 3....)

Therefore the numbers will be 14, 8, 15, 15, and 2, and by converting them to their corresponding alphabets, we get the word NHOOB.

Hence option *(b)* is the correct one.

Let's understand this with an example-

**Q- **In a certain code language, "SNITCH" is written as "JEVKPU". How is "BOARD" written in that code?

(a) CTFQQ

(b) FTCQD

(c) DQZRE

(d) none of these

**Solution-** Here, we need to find a valid logic to relate the given word SNITCH with the word JEVKPU. By applying the first logic rule, we get to see that the letters of the word SNITCH are not opposite to JEVKPU.

By applying the second logic rule, we get to see there is no sign of position-based sequencing.

After applying the third logic rule to SNITCH we get the numbers corresponding to it as 19, 14, 9, 20, 3, 8. And for the word JEVKPU we get 10, 5, 22, 11, 16, 21. However, after comparing them both, we get different numbers as difference. So this logic won't apply to this.

Now we will apply the fourth logic rule, which is reverse logic. Here we will compare the last alphabet with the first one, the last second with the second, and so on. Hence we get 21—â–º19= +2, 16—â–º 14=+2, 11—â–º9=+2, 22—â–º20=+2, 5—â–º3=+2 and 10—â–º8=+2.

So applying the same logic to the questioned word, we get BOARD—â–º2, 15, 1, 18, 4, and adding +2 in a reverse manner, we get —â–º6, 20, 3, 17, 4, and converting it into words we get—â–ºFTCQD

So option *(b)* is the correct one.

Let's understand this with an example-

**Q-** In a certain code language, "COUNTRY" is written as "YSGMCVX". How is "HISTORY" written in that code?

(a) WMLGCVS

*(b) GCVFRYT
(c) WMLDGVS
(d) none of these*

**Solution-** Here, we need to find a valid logic to relate the given word COUNTRY with the word YSGMCVX. By applying the first logic rule, we get to see that the letters of the word COUNTRY are not opposite to YSGMCVX.

By applying the second logic rule, we get to see there is no sign of position-based sequencing.

After applying the third logic rule to COUNTRY we get the numbers corresponding to it as 3, 15, 21, 14, 20, 18, 25. And for the word YSGMCVX we get 25, 19, 7, 13, 3, 22, 24. However, after comparing them both, we get different numbers as difference. So this logic won't apply to this.

Now we will apply the fourth logic rule, which is reverse logic. Here we will compare the last alphabet with the first one, the last second with the second, and so on. Hence we get 24—â–º3=+21, 22—â–º15=+7, just by looking at these two differences, we can conclude the logic won't apply here, and we will move to the next step.

Finally, we will apply the last logic rule, which is the cross-logic rule. This rule is a tough one, and most of the questions in the IPMAT paper are asked based on this rule. So make sure to understand the concept well, and you will be good to go.

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