Short Tricks and Formulas to Solve Profit Loss in Aptitude Exams

Author : Shashwat Srivastava

Updated On : June 22, 2023


Reader's Digest: Are you tired of struggling with profit and loss questions in the CLAT aptitude exam 2024? Look no further! Our article contains short tricks and formulas that will skyrocket your problem-solving skills. Don't miss out on these invaluable techniques. Read on to ace those CLAT aptitude questions 2024 with ease!

Mathematics is a crucial component of competitive exams, and it's no different for the CLAT Aptitude Test 2024. One common topic that appears in almost all these exams is profit and loss.

Many of you may face challenges when tackling questions related to this topic. But do not worry!

There are a few handy techniques that can help you solve profit and loss questions in just a few seconds. Curious to know how?

Well, keep reading this post, and you'll gain valuable insights into some nifty shortcuts for tackling profit and loss problems in CLAT aptitude exam.

Know Here: CLAT PG Cut Off Marks

What is Profit & Loss Formula?

The profit and Loss formula is used to determine the price of an item and understand how profitable a business is.

Every product has a cost price and selling price and based on the values of these prices, you can find out the profit gained or loss incurred on a particular product.

Scroll down to learn short tricks to solve profit loss questions in the aptitude exams.

Basic Concepts of Profit and Loss

Before diving into the realm of short tricks for calculating costs, profits, and discounts, let's familiarize ourselves with some basic concepts and formulas. Understanding these fundamental terms will provide a solid foundation for mastering the shortcuts later on.

1. Cost Price (CP):

The Cost Price refers to the price at which an item is purchased. This value can be further classified into two types:

a) Fixed Cost:
The Fixed Cost is a constant price that remains unchanged under any circumstances. It does not fluctuate based on the number of units.

b) Variable Cost:
On the other hand, the Variable Cost can vary depending on the number of units. As the quantity increases or decreases, the cost also changes accordingly.

2. Selling Price (SP):

The Selling Price represents the price at which an item is sold. It is the amount that a customer pays to acquire the product or service.

3. Profit or Gain (P):

Profit or Gain is the positive financial outcome achieved when the Selling Price exceeds the Cost Price. In simple terms, if you sell an item for more than what you paid for it, the difference between the Selling Price and the Cost Price is considered profit.

4. Loss (L):

Conversely, Loss occurs when the Selling Price is less than the Cost Price. In such cases, the difference between the Selling Price and the Cost Price represents the loss incurred.

5. Marked Price (MP):

The Marked Price, also known as the Listed Price, is the price set by shopkeepers or sellers as the original value of the product. It serves as a reference point from which discounts are offered to customers.

6. Discount:

A Discount refers to the reduction in price offered on the Marked Price. It is a deduction made from the original price to incentivize customers and encourage sales.

Having a clear understanding of these basic concepts and formulas related to cost, profit, loss, marked price, and discount is crucial for performing calculations effectively. By grasping these fundamental concepts, you will be better equipped to navigate the world of pricing and financial transactions.

Check: CLAT PG Online Mock

Short Tricks to Solve Profit Loss Questions in CLAT Aptitude Exam 2024

To effectively solve profit and loss questions in the CLAT aptitude exam 2024, it is essential to employ some useful tricks. Here are some important math formulas that can help you solve profit and loss problems within 10-15 seconds:

  1. Profit Calculation: Profit (P) = Selling Price (SP) - Cost Price (CP); SP > CP

  2. Loss Calculation: Loss (L) = CP - SP; CP > SP

  3. Profit Percentage: P% = (P/CP) x 100

  4. Loss Percentage: L% = (L/CP) x 100

  5. Selling Price Calculation: SP = [(100 + P%)/100] x CP

  6. Selling Price Calculation (Alternative): SP = [(100 - L%)/100] x CP

  7. Cost Price Calculation: CP = [100/(100 + P%)] x SP

  8. Cost Price Calculation (Alternative): CP = [100/(100 - L%)] x SP

  9. Discount Calculation: Discount = Marked Price (MP) - SP

  10. Selling Price Calculation (Alternative): SP = MP - Discount

  11. Equivalent Loss Percentage: If P% and L% are equal, then %loss = P2/100

  12. Net Percentage Profit or Loss: When the profit is x% and the loss is y%, the net % profit or loss will be: (x - y - xy)/100

  13. Calculation of Actual Cost Price: If a product is sold at x% profit and then again sold at y% profit, the actual cost price of the product will be: CP = [100 x 100 x P/(100 + x)(100 + y)]. In the case of loss, CP = [100 x 100 x P/(100 - x)(100 - y)]

  14. Profit Percentage for False Weight: For false weight, profit percentage will be: P% = (True weight - false weight/ false weight) x 100

  15. Net Percentage Profit with Two Successful Profits: When there are two successful profits, say x% and y%, the net percentage profit equals: (x + y + xy)/100

These profit and loss formulas and tricks can serve as valuable tools for your preparation. It is recommended to take note of these formulas or revisit this article for revision as needed.

Read More - Criminal Law Preparation Strategy for CLAT PG 2024

Important Profit & Loss Questions  

Solving previous years' question papers for the CLAT exam can provide valuable insights into the difficulty level and types of questions asked. Let's take a look at some important profit and loss questions and their solutions.

Question 1:
A dishonest merchant sells his grocery using weights that are 15% less than the true weights and manages to make a profit of 20%. What is his total gain percentage?

Let's assume the weight of a grocery bag to be 1 kg. The actual weight, considering the 15% reduction, is 85% of 1000 grams, which equals 850 grams. If we consider the cost price of each gram to be Re. 1, then the cost price of each bag is Rs. 850.

The selling price of 1 kg of bag is 120% of the true cost price. Therefore, SP = 120/100 x 1000 = Rs. 1200.

The gain is calculated as the difference between the selling price and the cost price: Gain = 1200 - 850 = Rs. 350.

Hence, the gain percentage is calculated as (350/850) x 100 = 41.17%.


Question 2:
A shopkeeper allows a discount of 10% on the marked price and still manages to gain 17% on the whole. What percentage above the cost price did he mark his goods?

Let's assume the cost price to be 100. The selling price is then 117 (since the shopkeeper gained 17%).

Let the marked price be represented as x. If a discount of 10% is applied to x, it becomes 90% of x. We have the equation: 90% of x = 117, which can be simplified to x = 130.

Therefore, the shopkeeper marked his goods 30% above the cost price.


Question 3:
A shopkeeper buys 1 kg of apples for Rs. 100 and sells them for Rs. 120 per kg. What is the profit gained by the shopkeeper?

The cost price of the apples is Rs. 100, and the selling price is Rs. 120.

The profit gained by the shopkeeper can be calculated as follows: Profit = Selling Price - Cost Price = Rs. 120 - Rs. 100 = Rs. 20.


Question 4:
If a pen costs Rs. 50 after a 10% discount, what is the pen's actual price or marked price?

Let's assume the marked price to be MP. After a 10% discount, the pen costs Rs. 50.

Using the formula: MP x (100 - 10) / 100 = 50, we can solve for MP:

MP x (90/100) = 50

MP = (50 x 100) / 90

Therefore, the pen's actual price or marked price is Rs. 55.55.


Question 5:
A man bought some toys at the rate of 10 for Rs. 40 and sold them at 8 for Rs. 35. What is his gain or loss percentage?

The cost price of 10 toys is Rs. 40, so the cost price of 1 toy is Rs. 4.

The selling price of 8 toys is Rs. 35, which means the selling price of 1 toy is Rs. 35/8.

The gain is calculated as the difference between the selling price and the cost price of 1 toy: Gain = (35/8) - 4 = 3/8.

Hence, the gain percentage is calculated as [(3/8)/4] x 100 = 9.375%.


Question 6:
A trader sells 85 meters of cloth for Rs. 8,925 with a profit of Rs. 15 per meter of cloth. What is the cost price of 1 meter of cloth?

The selling price of 1 meter of cloth is calculated by dividing the total selling price by the total quantity: SP of 1 meter of cloth = Rs. 8,925 / 85 = Rs. 105.

The cost price of 1 meter of cloth is obtained by subtracting the profit on 1 meter of cloth from the selling price: CP of 1 meter of cloth = Rs. 105 - Rs. 15 = Rs. 90.


These profit and loss questions cover various scenarios and concepts, providing valuable practice for the CLAT 2024 exam. By solving similar questions, you can enhance your understanding and improve your performance in the exam.

LegalEdge CLAT Toppers

LegalEdge CLAT Toppers

Read Here - CLAT PG Preparation Strategy for Company Law

Tips for Effective Problem Solving

Now that you have familiarized yourself with the basic concepts and formulas related to profit and loss, it's time to sharpen your problem-solving skills. Here are some tips to help you tackle profit and loss questions more efficiently:

  1. Read the question carefully: Understanding the given information is crucial. Pay attention to details such as cost price, selling price, discounts, and any other relevant factors mentioned in the problem.
  2. Identify the required information: Determine what the question is asking for. Is it the profit percentage, the cost price, or something else? Having a clear objective will guide your problem-solving approach.
  3. Break down complex problems: If a question seems complicated, try breaking it down into smaller, more manageable parts. Analyze each component individually before integrating the information to arrive at the final answer.
  4. Use diagrams or tables: Visual representations can help you organize the given data and track your calculations more effectively. Consider creating diagrams or tables to map out the relationships between cost price, selling price, and profit/loss.
  5. Practice mental math: Since time is often a constraint in competitive exams, developing mental math skills can significantly speed up your problem-solving process. Practice mental calculations for percentages, fractions, and basic arithmetic operations to save time during the exam.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

While preparing for the CLAT aptitude exam, it's essential to be aware of common mistakes that students often make when solving profit and loss questions. Avoiding these pitfalls can help you maintain accuracy and avoid unnecessary errors. Here are some common mistakes to watch out for:

  1. Confusing profit and loss calculations: Be careful when determining whether a question involves a profit or a loss scenario. Pay attention to the given information and apply the correct formulas accordingly.
  2. Misinterpreting discounts: Sometimes, questions may provide discounts on the marked price or the selling price. Ensure you understand which price the discount is being applied to and adjust your calculations accordingly.
  3. Ignoring the impact of fixed costs: Remember that fixed costs remain constant regardless of the number of units. Be cautious not to overlook fixed costs when calculating the overall profit or loss.
  4. Forgetting to convert percentages: When using formulas that involve percentages, ensure you convert them to decimal or fraction form before performing calculations. Failing to do so can lead to incorrect results.
  5. Not double-checking calculations: Always double-check your calculations to avoid simple arithmetic errors. Even the smallest mistakes can significantly affect the final answer.

By being mindful of these common mistakes and practicing careful calculation techniques, you can minimize errors and maximize your chances of achieving accurate solutions in the CLAT aptitude exam.

Check: Important Concepts of Constitutional Law


Remember, consistent practice, along with a strong understanding of the concepts and formulas, will help you excel in solving profit and loss questions. Keep revisiting these sections, solve practice problems, and approach each question with confidence. Best of luck in your CLAT aptitude exam preparation!

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the formula of profit percentage?

What is the formula of loss percentage?

How can I find profit margin?

What is marked price?

How can I solve profit & loss questions easily in the exam?


Toprankers, launched in 2016, is India’s most preferred digital counselling & preparation platform for careers beyond engineering & medicine. We envision to build awareness and increase the success rate for lucrative career options after 12th. We offer best learning practices and end-to-end support to every student preparing for management, humanities, law, judiciary & design entrances.




: +91-7676564400

Social Channels

App Badge

Chat to Toprankers Team