# Statement Questions on Critical Reasoning for DU JAT

Author : Palak Khanna

June 25, 2024

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Over the years Critical Reasoning questions have been consistently asked in DU JAT and other entrance exams like IPU CET, and JIPMAT. In the Reasoning and Analytical Ability section of DU JAT generally, 4-7 questions are based on critical reasoning.

The ability to solve these questions depends on your ability to recognize and evaluate argumentative logic. The better you understand and comprehend arguments, the better you will be at CR questions.

To ease out your preparation, we have accumulated important Critical Reasoning Questions for the DU JAT Exam from the previous year's papers and a few self-designed questions by TopRankers faculty.

### What is Critical Reasoning?

Critical Reasoning questions are basically inferential questions based on a short passage.

The typical critical reasoning passage is about 50 to 200 words and contains an argument and questions based on the conclusion, reasons and facts are asked.

Here are a few important terms required to solve critical reasoning questions.

• Support of an Argument - the support of an argument can be visualized as the foundation on the basis of which arguments are made.
• Assumptions - they are additional unstated information that bridges the gap between the argument, its evidence presented and conclusion.
• Inferences - It is the unstated extension of the argument or the implied conclusion.

## Types of statement based Critical Reasoning Questions for DU JAT

Generally, Critical Reasoning questions of DU JAT are based on the following types.

• Test for the strengthening of an argument
• Test for the weakening of an argument
• Identify an assumption
• Identify an inference
• Selecting the best concluding statement
• Identifying the flaws in the argument
• Relevance of the Argument

To help you get an idea about the type of questions asked in the exam, we have provided the sample questions that are curated from the previous year's Question Papers of DU JAT.

Practising these questions will help improve your speed and time management by doing this regularly.

### Strengthening of an argument

In questions on strengthening the argument, the question will ask you to select the statement that strengthens the argument most.

Arguments can be strengthened in two ways: either through the introduction of some supporting evidence or some supporting reasons. Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

One of the most important and constructive reforms in National Politics has been the abolition of the post of State Ministers in the various departments.

Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the above argument, except

1. There are few, if any, specific duties or responsibilities assigned to the State Minister in any department.
2. A historian claimed that the post was "superfluous."
3. People of Cabinet minister caliber normally refuse the post if offered a ministership in the guise of a state minister.
4. The office is used as a means of appeasing regional parties, by giving their MPs ministerial status and perks without giving them any significant responsibilities.

Solution: 2

### Weakening of an Argument

Similar to the strengthening of an argument these questions are based on the weakening of an argument by the introduction of additional evidence or claim.

Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

Before the arrival of a new trainer, the sales output in AMS Learning Systems Ltd. had been rising by 20% per year on average over the past ten years. However, after new training innovations by the trainer (which included computerisation of training processes and reductions in the need for additional workforce) annual sales output has only risen by 10% this year. It appears that Joe's innovations have caused a reduction in the annual growth rate.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion above?

1. The investment in computerisation has a provision for depreciation of the cost of the computers.
2. Increases in selling price did not follow increases in the cost of the inputs.
3. The innovations brought in by the new trainer were intended as long-term investments and not made for short-term profit growth.
4. General demand for the training provided by the company has declined.

Solution: 4

### Identify an Assumption

In these questions, you are asked to identify the possible assumptions in the paragraph. Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

In response to the criticism about the methods used by his poll predicting agency, a leading psephologist Mannoy Toy, replied: "I realise there are some shortcomings to the questionnaire method that we have applied to do the survey. However, since we have ensured that we send a copy of the questionnaire to every home in each of the constituencies where we have carried out our survey, we believe the results to be quite representative..... We think the numbers received are so large that it overcomes the lack of a scientific approach that might have crept into our survey.

The writer of the above statement makes which of the following assumptions?

1. A high proportion of the respondents who have received the questionnaire have replied to the same.
2. A majority of the voters in the constituency live in homes.
3. The method of data collection used by the agency is unscientific.
4. A large, absolute number of replies automatically guarantees the accuracy of the results.

Solution: 4

### Identify an Inference

In these questions, you will be asked to spot the option that is/ is not an inference that can be drawn from the conclusion mentioned in the paragraph.

Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

A recent study on medicine addiction found out that there are principally three main factors that determine the risk of becoming dependent on or addicted to medicines. The first factor is the type of medicine, the second is the personality of the individual, and the third factor is controlled by the circumstances in which the medicine is taken. As a parallel example, we only need to look as far as alcohol. While it could be safely said that the majority of the adult population have taken alcohol, yet only a small proportion of these go on to get addicted to alcohol. Besides, it is well documented that many strong medicines that have been used for medical purposes have not caused the patient to become addicted.

However, the study found that people who took medicines for the heck of it were more likely to become dependent on the same. The dependence need not be restricted to the physiological side but may become psychological, although the effects are still essentially the same. People with psychopathic, immature or otherwise unstable personalities were shown to be at the greatest risk of becoming addicted.

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the text?

1. One becomes addicted to certain medicines only if one has a weak personality.
2.  Taking medicines for the fun of it increases the possibility of becoming dependent on medicines.
3. Alcohol is a safe medicine since very few people become dependent on it.
4. Long-term use of certain drugs for medical purposes does not cause addiction.

Solution: 2

### Selecting the best concluding Statement

In these types of questions, a paragraph is given followed by four concluding options, and you have to choose the option that best concludes the paragraph. Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

Thus the end of knowledge and the closing of the frontier that it symbolizes is not a looming crisis at all, but merely one of many embarrassing fits of hubris in civilization's long industry. In the end, it will pass away and be forgotten. Ours is not the first generation to struggle to understand the organizational laws of the frontier, deceive itself that it has succeeded, and go to its grave having failed. __________

1. One would be wise to be humble.
2. But we might be the first generation to actually reach the frontier.
3. But we might be the first generation to deal with the crisis.
4. However, this time the success is not illusory.

Solution: 1

### Identifying the flaws in the argument

In these questions, you need to identify whether there is an error in the entire argument or it is in a specific part of the problem. Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

Roma: The number of accidents on state and national highways this year in the state of Karnataka, where the speed limit was lowered to fifty kmph an hour two years ago, is clear evidence that speed restrictions rigorously enforced, make drivers more aware of the dangers of going too fast.

Aamir: Wrong. If you take a close look at the records it will show you that the number of accidents has been falling ever since the introduction of newer and stricter penalties for traffic rules violations, which happened two years before the lowering of the speed limit.

Which of the following best describes the weak point in Roma's statement upon which Aamir focuses?

1. The decrease in highway accidents may be a temporary phenomenon.
2. The evidence Roma cites comes only from one area.
4. Roma fails to provide concrete evidence to prove a direct causative relationship between the cause and the effect.

### Relevance of the Argument

Relevance questions are framed with the objective of testing the student's abilities to understand the main idea of the passage. You are expected to test the main idea of various options for their relevance to the arguments presented. Refer to the example question below to better understand these types of questions.

Example:

Amrinder Singh is no big catch for the Congress Party in Uttar Pradesh. Even though he is the brother of the Chief Minister of the opposing Bhrasthwadi Party, he himself has no political clout and was not even important organizationally for his own party. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with the above?

1. Amrinder Singh is the brother of the present Chief Minister of Uttam Pradesh.
2. The Bhrastwadi Party and the Tongress Party are political rivals.
3. Amrinder Singh is being touted as the next leader of the Bhrasthwadi Party.
4. Amrinder Singh has not been interested in politics.
5. Amrinder Singh is not treated as very important by his own party men.

### Important Critical Reasoning Questions for DU JAT

Q1.Glen: An emphasis on law's purely procedural side produces a concern with personal

rights that lead to the individual's indifference to society's welfare. Law's primary role

should be to create virtuous citizens.

Sara: But such a role would encourage the government to decide which modes of life are truly

virtuous; that would be more dangerous than the government's being overprotective of

individuals' rights.

The dialogue provides the most support for the claim that Glen and Sara disagree about

whether

1.  citizens can be assumed to be capable of making good choices without governmental

Interference

1. virtuousness on the part of citizens is more important than the protection of citizens

Rights

1. there is an inherent danger in allowing the government to decide what constitutes virtuous behaviour among citizens.
2. an emphasis on law's purely procedural side results in the government’s being overprotective of citizens' rights
3. the cultivation of virtue among citizens should be the primary role of law

Solution: Here we have to choose the dialogue which supports the argument of one individual and disagrees with the other. Statement e, clearly supports Glen and disagrees with Sara, hence option E is the correct choice.

Q2. Ethicist: An action is wrong if it violates a rule of the society in which the action is performed and that rule promotes the general welfare of people in the society. An action is right if it is required by a rule of the society in which the action is performed and the rule promotes the general welfare of the people in that society. Which one of the following judgments most closely conforms to the principle cited by the ethicist?

1. Amelia's society has a rule against lying. However, she lies anyway in order to protect an innocent person from being harmed. While the rule against lying promotes the general welfare of people in society, Amelia's lie is not wrong because she is preventing harm.
2. Jordan lives in a society that requires its members to eat certain ceremonial foods during festivals. Jordan disobeys this rule. Because the rule is not detrimental to the general welfare of people in her society, Jordan's disobedience is wrong.
3. Elgin obeys a certain rule of his society. Because Elgin knows that this particular rule is detrimental to the general welfare of the people in his society, his obedience is wrong.
4. Dahlia always has a cup of coffee before getting dressed in the morning. Dahlia's action is right because it does not violate any rule of the society in which she lives.
5. Edward's society requires children to take care of their aged parents. Edward's taking care of his aged parents is the right thing for him to do because the rule requiring this action promotes the general welfare of people in society.

Solution: Here we don't know whether the action is right or wrong if there is a rule which is not promoting the general welfare. In option E, Edward’s action is right as he follows the society rule that promotes the general welfare of people. Hence option E is the correct choice.

Q3. Sociologist: The welfare state is feasible only if wage earners are prepared to contribute

their hard-earned income to assist others with means lesser than theirs. Since people

innately maintain interest only in their own well-being and happiness, a welfare state is

impossible to implement successfully.

The argument above rests on which of the following assumptions?

1. Human beings are essentially selfish.
2. The welfare state unfairly asks those who work hard to help those who have less Money
3. People never define their well-being and happiness in terms of helping others.
4. The interests of the less fortunate impinge on the interests of others.
5. The welfare state relies on the generosity of wage earners.

Solution: We have to find the statement implicit to the given paragraph, Statement C implicitly explains the paragraph as para mentions people innately maintain interest only in their own well-being and happiness and from this it is implicit People never define their well-being and happiness in terms of helping others. Hence option C is the correct choice.

Q4. Anne: Halley's Comet, now in a part of its orbit relatively far from the Sun, recently flared brightly enough to be seen by telescope. No comet has ever been observed to flare so far from the Sun before, so such a flare must be highly unusual.

Sue: Nonsense. Usually, no one bothers to try to observe comets when they are so far from the Sun. This flare was observed only because an observatory was tracking Halley's Comet very carefully.

Sue challenges Anne's reasoning by

1.  pointing out that Anne's use of the term “observed” is excessively vague
2. drawing attention to an inconsistency between two of Anne's claims
3. presenting evidence that directly contradicts Anne's evidence
4. offering an alternative explanation for the evidence Anne cites
5. undermining some of Anne's evidence while agreeing with her conclusion

Solution: Option D is the correct choice, as Sue has provided an alternate explanation for the evidence cited by Anne.

Q5. University budget committee: Athletes experience fewer injuries on artificial turf athletic fields than on natural-grass fields. Additionally, natural-grass fields are more expensive to maintain fields made of artificial turf. Nevertheless, this committee recommends replacing the university's current artificial turf field with a natural grass field.

Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the committee's position?

1. The university's current artificial turf athletic field has required extensive maintenance since its original installation.
2. Most injuries sustained on artificial turf fields take longer to heal and require more expensive physical therapy than do injuries sustained on natural grass fields.
3. It is difficult for spectators at athletic events to determine whether an athletic field is an artificial turf or natural grass.
4. Maintaining artificial turf fields involves the occasional replacement of damaged sections of turf, whereas natural-grass fields require daily watering and periodic fertilization.
5. Athletes who have spent most of their playing time on natural grass fields generally prefer not to play on artificial turf fields.

Solution: Option B is the correct choice as it provides the most reasonable decision for selecting the Natural turf.

Q6. Marc: The fact that the people of our country look back on the past with a great deal of nostalgia demonstrates that they regret the recent revolution.

Robert: They are not nostalgic for the recent past, but for the distant past, which the pre-revolutionary regime despised; this indicates that although they are troubled, they do not regret the revolution.

Their dialogue provides the most support for the claim that Marc and Robert agree that the people of their country

1. tend to underrate past problems when the country faces troubling times
2. are looking to the past for solutions to the country's current problems
3. are likely to repeat former mistakes if they look to the country's past for solutions to current problems
4. are concerned about the country's current situation and this is evidenced by their nostalgia
5. tend to be most nostalgic for the things that are the farthest in their past

Solution: Option D is the correct choice as both agree with this statement.

### DU JAT previous year Critical Reasoning Questions

Q1. In the question below two statements are followed by three conclusions numbered I, II and III. Taking the two statements given as true, read all the conclusions and select the conclusions that follow from the given statement.

Statements:

2. No tree is soap.

Conclusions:

1. No soap is a road

III. No road is a soap

1. Only III 2. Only 1 3. Only II 4. I, II and III

Solution: Option 4

Q2. Animals in general, are shrewd in proportion as they cultivate society. Elephants and beavers show the greatest signs of this sagacity when they are together in large numbers, but when man invades their communities, they lose all their spirit of industry. Among insects, the labours of the bee and the ant have attracted the attention and admiration of naturalists, but all their sagacity seems to be lost upon separation, and a single bee or ant seems destitute of every degree of industry. It becomes the most stupid insect imaginable and it languishes and soon dies. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage?

1. Humankind is responsible for the destruction of the natural habitat of animals and insects.
2. Animals, in general, are unable to function effectively outside their normal social environment.
3. Naturalists have great admiration for bees and ants, despite their lack of industry upon separation.
4. Elephants and beavers are smarter than bees and ants in the presence of human beings.

Solution: Option 2

Q3. Which of the following, if true, would provide the most support for concluding from the survey results described above that the use of illegal drugs by people below the age of 20 is declining?

1. Another survey found an increase in the rate of smoking amongst high school seniors.
2. In the past, high school seniors were consistently the population group most likely to use illegal drugs and most likely to use them heavily.
3. The percentage of high school seniors who use illegal drugs is consistently very similar to the percentage of all people below the age of 20 who use illegal drugs.
4. Both (B) and (c).
5. All of (A), (B) and (C).

Solution: Option 3