Updated On : April 5, 2024

Blood Relation is the study of determining the relation between kith and kin through a chain of relationships. Blood Relation involves the analysis of information showing blood relationships among members of a family.

It involves analysis of certain blood relations and then inferring based on given information. Hence, it shows the picture of relations within the family.

The problems on Blood Relations involve analysis of certain blood relations and then inferring on the basis of the given information. In this type of problem, you should give proper attention to find out the correct relation.

Some of the blood relations which are generally used in the question are given below in the tabular form:

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Mother’s or father’s son | Brother |

Mother’s or father’s daughter | Sister |

Father’s brother | Uncle |

Father’s sister | Aunt |

Father’s father | Grandfather |

Father’s mother | Grandmother |

Mother’s brother | Maternal Uncle |

Mother’s sister | Maternal Aunt |

Son’s wife | Daughter in law |

Daughter’s husband | Son in law |

Husband’s or wife’s sister | Sister-in-law |

Husband’s or wife’s brother | Brother-in-law |

Brother’s son | Nephew |

Brother’s Daughter | Niece |

Sister’s husband | Brother-in-law |

Brother’s wife | Sister-in-law |

Mother’s father | Maternal Grandfather |

Mother’s mother | Maternal Grandmother |

Mentioned below are some of the basic approaches related to how to solve blood relation questions easily: -

- In the question, if it is not mentioned about paternal or maternal. By default, we consider the paternal type.
- We cannot determine the gender of a person by name.
- Whenever in the question it is given that there is a male we have to denote that with a (square) or by a ‘+’ (plus) sign.
- Whenever in the question it is given that there is a female we have to denote that with a (circle) sign or by a ‘-’ (minus) sign.
- Always solve statements in generations.
- Always be careful about “He” and “She” because from this you can determine gender.
- Whenever in the question it is given that A is a husband of B then we will show their relationship like this: By writing like this it will become easy to understand their relation and gender both.
- Whenever in the question it is given that C is the brother of D then we show their relationship like this: By writing like this it will be easier to understand their relationship.
- Whenever in the question it is given that A is a husband of B and C is a son of A and D is a daughter of A we will show their relationship like this

Now here we are providing you the ‘Generation Tree’ which will help you to understand the concept of Blood Relation more clearly.

**Read more:** **NID Entrance Exam**

To help you get an idea about the type of questions asked from blood relation topic, we have provided few sample questions curated from the **previous year's NID Question Papers**.

**Type 𝟏 - Language Based**

In such types of problems, the relationship between two people is given through a roundabout description relating them to other people. A roundabout description can be in the form of statements made by a person. Candidates are advised to go through the chain of relationships and determine the relationship between the objects.

Further Language-based questions are also divided into two ways i.e.,

𝟣. Direct language

𝟸. Indirect Language.

**Read more: ****NIFT Entrance Exam**

**𝟏. Direct Language **

In such types of questions, a roundabout description about a particular person is entertained through another person directly.

**Example no. ****𝟏****: **Looking at the portrait of a man. Dharmesh said, “His mother is the wife of my father’s son. Brothers and sisters I have none”. Whose portrait was Dharmesh looking at?

(𝟣). His son

(𝟸). His cousin

(𝟹). His uncle

(𝟺). His nephew

(𝟻), None of these

**Answer: (𝟣). His Son**

**Solution:**

According to the generation tree,

Here, my father’s son means Dharmesh itself because it is mentioned earlier that Dharmesh has no brother and no sister. So, he is the only son of his father. Now, the wife of my father’s son means wife of Dharmesh. Hence, the man in the portrait is the son of Dharmesh

**Read more: ****UCEED Entrance Exam**

**Example no. 𝟮: **When Abhay saw Mangal, he recalled, “He is the son of the father of my daughter’s mother”. How is Mangal related to Abhay?

(𝟣). Brother-in-Law

(𝟸). Brother

(𝟹). Cousin

(𝟺). Uncle

(𝟻), Nephew

**Answer: (𝟭) Brother-in-Law**

**Solution:**

According to the generation tree,

Here, from the above generation tree, it is clear that Mangal is the brother of Abhay’s wife. Hence, Mangal is the brother-in-law of Abhay.

**𝟮. Indirect Language**

Such questions are introduced without pointing to any specific person but a roundabout description of a family is given. Candidates are required to co-relate all the given conditions and answer the questions accordingly.

**Example no. 𝟏: **D is the brother of B. M is the brother of B. K is the father of M. T is the wife of K. How is B related to T?

(𝟣). Son

(𝟸). Daughter

(𝟹). Son or Daughter

(𝟺). Data Inadequate

(𝟻), None of these

**Answer: (𝟯) Son or Daughter**

**Solution:**

According to the Generation Tree,

Here, from the above generation tree,

it is clear that the sex of B is unknown. So, B is either son or daughter of T.

**Example no. 𝟐: **A is the father of C and D is the son of B. E is the brother of A. if C is the sister of D. How is B related to E?

(𝟣). Daughter

(𝟸). Brother-in-Law

(𝟹). Husband

(𝟺). Sister-in-Law

(𝟻), None of these

**Answer: (𝟒) Sister-in-Law**

**Solution:**

According to the Generation Tree,

Here, from the above generation tree it is clear that A is the father of C and C is the sister of D. So, A is the father of D. D is the son of B, so B is the wife of A. E is the brother of A. Hence, B is the sister-in-law of E.

**Type 𝟮 - Equation-Based**

Such types of problems involve relationship strings that are coded in a particular fashion. Here, relations are presented in the form of equations having specific symbols with explanatory notification. Candidates are required to decode each and every relation and then interpret the given relationship string.

Further equation-based questions are also divided into two ways i.e.,

𝟣. Forward Relation

𝟸. Backward Relation.

**𝟏. Forward Relation **

In such types of relation, always the first person is introduced by the second person. Such equations are operated from left to right i.e A + B means A is the mother of B. Now, in A + B, A appears first and B later. So, the first person (A) is the mother of the second person (B).

**Example no. ****𝟏****: **Read the following information carefully and answer the question accordingly.

P + Q means P is the brother of Q.

P x Q means P is the father Q.

P - Q means P is the sister of Q.

**𝟏. Which of the following represents S as the niece of T?**

(𝟣). T x S + M - K

(𝟸). T x M + S - K

(𝟹). K - S x M + T

(𝟺). T x M x S - K

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟺). T x M x S - K**

**Solution:**

From equations (1) and (3) from the question, it is clear that S must be female in sex. But in both the equations S is a male in sex.

In Equation (1), S is followed by the symbol (+) which indicates that S is the brother of M. So, S cannot be the niece of T.

In Equation (3), S is followed by the symbol (x) which indicates that S is the father of M. Hence, S cannot be the niece of T.

From Equation (2), T x M + S - K, here S is followed by the symbol (-) which indicates that S is the sister of K, but the relation with T does not describe that S is the niece of T. Here, T is the father of S. Hence, S cannot be the niece of T.

From Equation (4), T + M x S - K, here S is followed by the symbol (-) which indicates that S is the sister of K, the relation between M x S indicates that M is the father of S, and Relation between T + M indicates that T is the brother of M. On relating all the relations, it is clear that S is the niece of T.

According to the generation tree, T + M x S - K

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that since S is the daughter of M and T is the brother of M. S is the niece of T.

**How is K related to R in the expression K x N + T - S x R?**

(𝟣). Father

(𝟸). Mother

(𝟹). Brother

(𝟺). Uncle

(𝟻). Grandfather

**Answer: (𝟻). Grandfather**

**Solution:**

According to the generation tree,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that since K is the father of S and S is also the father of R. Hence, K is the grandfather of R.

**𝟮. Backward Relation**

In such a type of relation, always the second person is introduced by the first person. Such equations are operated from right to left. I.e., A + B means B is the mother of A. Now in A + B, B appears later and A appears first. So, the second person (B) is the mother of the first-person (A).

**Example no. ****𝟏****: **Read the following information carefully and answer the question accordingly.

P x Q means Q is the wife of P.

P + Q means Q is the father of P.

P ÷ Q means Q is the mother of P.

P - Q means Q is the sister of P.

**𝟏. Which of the following expressions represents J as the grandmother of R?**

(𝟣). R + B x L - J

(𝟸). R - B ÷ L + J

(𝟹). R ÷ B + L x J

(𝟺). R + B ÷ L + J

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟹). R ÷ B + L x J**

**Solution: **

From the equations, it is clear that J must be female in sex, but in Equations (2) and (4), J is male. Hence, these cannot be the answer choice.

In equations (2) and (4), J is preceded by the symbol (+) which indicates that J is the father of L. Hence, here J can never be the grandmother.

From equation (1), R + B x L - J, here J is preceded by the symbol (-) which indicates that J is the sister of L. Relation between B x L indicates that L is the wife of B, the relation between R + B indicates that B is the father of R. Hence, where J is the maternal aunt of R.

From Equation (3), R ÷ B + L x J, here J is preceded by the symbol (x) which indicates that J is the wife of L, the relation between B + L indicates that L is the father of B, and the relation between R ÷ B indicates that B is the mother of R. On relating all the relations, it is clear that J is the mother of R’s mother B. Hence, J is the grandmother of R.

According to the generation tree,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that B is the mother of R and J is the wife of B’s father L. Hence, J is the grandmother of R.

**2. How is T related to N in the following expression N + M - O ÷ T?**

(𝟣). Mother

(𝟸). Father

(𝟹). Grandmother

(𝟺). Grandfather

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟹). Grandmother**

**Solution:**

Given the equation: N + M - O ÷ T

According to the generation tree,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that T is the mother of N’s father M. Hence, T is the grandmother of N here.

There are some of the important Blood Relation questions and their answers mentioned below for your practice and for understanding the tricks and unique methods to solve the Blood Relation question easily.

**Question 1: **Diwaker said to Ayush, “That boy singing a song is the younger of the two brothers of the daughter of my father’s wife,”. How is the boy singing a song related to Diwaker?

(𝟣). Son

(𝟸). Brother

(𝟹). Cousin

(𝟺). Nephew

(𝟻). Brother-in-Law

**Answer: (𝟸). Brother**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that the daughter of my father’s wife is to be my sister. So, Diwaker’s sister has two brothers, one is Diwaker and another is a boy who is singing a song. Hence, the boy singing the song is the brother of Diwaker.

**Question 2: **Pointing to Gunjan, the father of Ruby says, “She is the daughter of the only daughter of the wife of the only son of the grandfather of my sister”. How is Shreya related to Gunjan if their cousin is the sister of Ruby?

(𝟣). Mother

(𝟸). Aunt

(𝟹). Niece

(𝟺). Cousin

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟺). Cousin**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

Here, from the above generation tree, it is clear that the only son of the grandfather of my sister is to be the father of Ruby’s father and Gunjan is the daughter of Ruby’s father’s sister. So, Ruby and Gunjan both are cousins. Hence, Shreya is the cousin of Gunjan.

**Question 3: **Pointing to a lady, a girl said, “She is the daughter-in-law of the grandmother of my father’s only son”. How is the lady related to that girl?

(𝟣). Sister-in-law

(𝟸). Mother

(𝟹). Aunt

(𝟺). Mother-in-law

(𝟻). Cousin

**Answer: (𝟸). Mother**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

Here, from the above generation tree, we can easily see that my father’s only son means my brother. My brother's grandmother is my grandmother. Daughter - in - law of my grandmother is my mother. Hence, the lady is the mother of that girl.

**Question 4: **P’s father is Q’s son. M is the paternal uncle of P and N is the brother of Q. How is N related to M?

(𝟣). Brother

(𝟸). Nephew

(𝟹). Cousin

(𝟺). Data Inadequate

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟺). Data Inadequate**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that P’s father is Q’s son. P’s father and M are brothers. Since the sex of Q is not known and N is the brother of Q. if Q is a male then N is the paternal uncle of M but Q is a female then N is the maternal uncle of M. Hence, data is inadequate.

**Question 5: **A is the son of B. C, B’s sister has a son D and a daughter E. F is the maternal uncle of D

**(𝐀) How is A related to D?**

(𝟣) Cousin

(𝟸) Nephew

(𝟹) Uncle

(𝟺) Brother

(𝟻) None of these

**(𝐁) How is E related to F?**

(𝟣) Sister

(𝟸) Daughter

(𝟹) Niece

(𝟺) Wife

(𝟻). None of these

**(𝐂) How many nephews does F have?**

(𝟣) Nil

(𝟸) One

(𝟹) Two

(𝟺) Three

(𝟻). More than Three

**Answer: (A). (1). Cousin**

**(B) (3). Niece**

**(𝐂) (3). Two **

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

Here as per the above generation tree, we will answer the question asked.

(𝐀) Since A and D are in the same generation, A must be a cousin of D.

(𝐁)** ** As you can see in the above generation tree, it is clearly mentioned that F is the brother of E’s mother. Hence, E is the niece of F.

(𝐂) It is clear in the above generation tree that F has two nephews i.e., A and D.

**Question 6: **A is the father of C but C is not his son. E is the daughter of C. F is the spouse of A. B is the brother of C. D is the son of B. G is the spouse of B. H is the father of G.

**(A) Who is the grandmother of D?**

(1) A

(2) C

(3) F

(4) H

(5) None of these

**(B). Who is the son of F?**

(1) B

(2) C

(3) D

(4) E

(5) None of these

**Answer: (A). (3). F**

**(B). (1). B**

**Solution:**

According to the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree.

Now, after making the generation tree we will try to solve the questions asked.

(A). As we can see in the above generation tree, C is the sister of B and A is the father of C. So, A is the father of B then F is the mother of B. Now D is the son of B. Hence, F is the grandmother of D.

(B). it is clear from the above-made generation tree that B is the son of F.

**Question 7: Study the information given below and answer the questions that follow.**

There are five persons P, Q, R, S, and T. One is a football player, one is a chess player and one is a hockey player. P and S are unmarried ladies and do not participate in any game. None of the ladies plays chess or football. There is a married couple in which T is the husband. Q is the brother of R and is neither a chess player nor a hockey player.

**(A). Who is the football player?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(B). Who is the hockey player?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(C) Who is the chess player?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(D). Which is the wife of T?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(E). The three ladies in the family are**

(1). P, Q, R

(2). Q, R, S

(3). P, Q, S

(4). P, R, S

(5). None of these

**Answer: (A). (2). Q**

**(B). (3). R**

**(C). (5). T**

**(D). (3). R**

**(E). (4). R, P, and S. **

**Solution:**

According to the given information, we will make a generation tree first and then solve the questions related to that generation tree.

After making the generation tree we will answer the questions given related to the above generation tree.

(A). As you can see in the above generation tree that Q is playing football and Q is female also. Hence, the answer is Q.

(B). As you can see in the above generation tree that R is playing hockey and R is female also. Hence, the answer is R.

(C). As you can see in the above generation tree, T is playing chess and T is male also. Hence, the answer is T.

(D). It is clear from the above generation tree, that R is the wife of T. and R is a hockey player and T is the chess player.

(E). From the above generation tree,

it is clear that R, P, and S are the three female members of the family.

**Question 8: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it.**

(i). P, Q, R, S, T, and U are six members of a family in which there are two married couples.

(ii). R, a male member, is neither lightest nor the heaviest in the family.

(iii). T is lighter than R. P, the grandmother in the family is the lightest.

(iv). S is the sister of U. Both S and U are heavier than Q.

(v). Q is the mother of S and heavier than R.

**(A). How many female members are there in the family?**

(1). Data Inadequate

(2). Two

(3). Four

(4). Three

(5). None of these

**(B). How is T related to S?**

(1). Grandfather

(2). Sister

(3). Mother

(4). Data Inadequate

(5). None of these

**(C). How is R related to U? **

(1). Brother

(2). Father

(3). Uncle

(4). Cousin

(5). None of these

**(D). Which of the following is a pair of married couples?**

(1). PS

(2). QR

(3). PQ

(4). QT

(5). None of these

**(E). Who among the following will be in second place, if all the members in the family are arranged in the descending order of their weight?**

(1). S

(2). U

(3). S or U

(4). Data Inadequate

(5). None of these

**Answer: (A). (1). Data Inadequate**

**(B). (4). Data Inadequate**

**(C). (5). None of these**

**(D). (5). None of these**

**(E). (3). S or U **

**Solution:**

According to the given information, this type of generation tree will be prepared.

As per the generation tree above, we will answer the questions.

(A). As we can see in the above generation tree the sex of U is not known, so the number of females in the family cannot be determined. Hence, the answer will be an option (1) i.e. Data inadequate.

(B). It is clear from the above generation tree that T is either a father or a grandfather of S. we don't have adequate data to tell T’s relation with S. So, the answer will be an option (4) i.e. data inadequate.

(C). As per the above generation tree, it is clear that R’s relationship with U will be either a father or a grandfather. So, we don’t have enough data to prove any of one confirmed relationship of R with U. So, the answer will be an option (5) i.e. None of these.

(D). As you can see in the above generation tree there is no confirmed information about the generation of R and T. So, in that case, we can’t determine the married couples in the family. Hence, the answer will be an option (5) i.e. None of these.

(E). It is clear from the above generation tree that either S or U will be in second place when all the family members are arranged in descending order of their weights. Hence the answer will be an option (3) i.e. S or U.

**Question 9: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions based on them.**

(i). There is a family of six members A, B, C, D, E, and F.

(ii). There are two married couples in the family and the family members represent three generations.

(iii). Each member has a distinct choice of color amongst green, yellow, black, red, white, and pink.

(iv). No lady member likes either green or white.

(v). C, who likes the black color, is the daughter-in-law of E.

(vi). B is the brother of F and son of D and likes pink.

(vii). A is the grandmother of F and F does not like red.

(viii). The husband has a choice of green color, his wife likes yellow.

**(A) Which of the following is true about F?**

(1). Brother of B

(2). Sister of B

(3). Either (1) or (2)

(4). Daughter of C

(5). None of these

**(B) Which of the following is one of the married couples?**

(1). CD

(2). DA

(3). AC

(4). Cannot be determined

(5). None of these

**(C) How many male members are there in the family?**

(1). Two

(2). Three

(3). Four

(4). Cannot be determined

(5). None of these

**(D) Which of the following is the color combination of one of the couples?**

(1). Yellow - Red

(2). Green - Black

(3). Red - Yellow

(4). Yellow - Green.

(5). None of these

**(E) Which of the following is the color preference of A?**

(1). Red

(2). Yellow

(3). Either yellow or red

(4). Cannot be determined

(5). None of these

**Answer: (A). (3). Either (1) or (2)**

**(B). (1) CD**

**(C). (4) Cannot be determined**

**(D). (4). Yellow - Green**

**(E). (2) Yellow**

**Solution:**

According to the given information, we have prepared a generation tree.

Below you can see the generation tree of the given information.

(A). It is clear from the above generation tree that F is either brother or Sister of B. hence, the answer is option (3) i.e. Either (1) or (2).

(B). It is evident from the above generation tree that C and D are married couples. Hence, the answer is option (1) i.e. CD.

(C). It is clear from the above generation tree, since, the sex of F is not known, so the number of male members cannot be determined. Hence, the answer is an option (4) i.e. Cannot be determined.

(D). It is evident from the above generation tree that Yellow - Green is the color combination of couple E and A. Hence, the answer is an option (4) i.e. Yellow - Green.

(E). As you can see in the above generation tree that A likes yellow color. Hence, the answer is an option (2) i.e. Yellow.

**Question 10: **If A + B means B is the brother of A; A x B means B is the husband of A; A - B means A is the mother of B and A % B means A is the father of B. Which of the following relations shows that Q is the grandmother of T?

(1). Q - P + R % T

(2). P x Q % R - T

(3). Q x P % R + T

(4). P + Q % R - T

(5). None of these

**Answer: (3). Q x P % R + T**

**Solution:**

According to the question, we will make a generation tree.

This is the generation tree created by using the information given in the question so as per this generation tree it is clear that P is the mother of T and Q is the mother of P. So, Q must be the grandmother of T.

**Question 11: **If P + Q means P is the father of Q, P x Q means P is the brother of Q, P - Q means P is the mother of Q, then which of the following is definitely true about C - A + B?

(1). B is the son of A

(2). A is the son of C

(3). B is the father of A

(4). C is the mother of B

(5). B is the daughter of A

**Answer: (2). A is the son of C**

**Solution:**

Below you will find the generation tree made on the basis of the given information.

It is clear from the above generation tree that A is the father of B and C is the mother of A. So, A is the son of C is definitely true.

**Question 12: Read the following information carefully and answer the question.**

A + B means A is the father of B.

A - B means A is the mother of B.

A x B means A is the brother of B.

A ÷ B means A is the sister of B.

**1. Which of the following means that A is the grandmother of B?**

(1). A + B x C - D ÷ F

(2). A x C - D + B x F

(3). A - B - C + D + E

(4). A-C x B + D ÷ F

(5). None of these

**Answer: (5). None of these**

**Solution:**

Here in this question since A is to be the grandmother of B. A must be a female. But the very first words in options (1) and (2) mean that A is a male. Because in option (1), A + B means A is the father (a male) of B and in option (2), A x C means A is brother (a male) of C.

Therefore, in these two choices, we don’t need to look any further and straight away eliminate them.

Now, we must look for options (3) and (4) which indicate A is a female, but going through with them an option (3) A is the mother of B but in option (4), A is the mother of B’s brother C, Hence, A is the mother of B.

So, none of the options give the answer.

**Question 13: Consider the following information and answer the question.**

A + B means A is the father of B.

A x B means A is the brother of B.

A - B means A is the mother of B.

A @ B means A is the wife of B.

A $ B means A is the son of B.

(1). A + B + C

(2). A x B x C

(3). A x B - C

(4). A - B @ C $ D

(5). None of these

**Answer: (5) None of these**

**Solution:**

In option (1), we have A as the father of B and B as the father of C. Clearly, A is the grandfather of C.

The generation gap is two between A and C. The gap between A and B is 1 (because A is the father of B). Similarly, the gap between B and C is 1. So, the gap between A and C is 1 + 1 = 2.

In option (2), we have A is the brother of B who is the brother of C. Clearly, A is the brother of C. So, there is no i.e., zero generation gap.

The gap between A and B is 0 (as A and B are of the same generation, i.e., brothers) and that gap between B and C is also 0. So, the gap between A and C is 0 + 0 = 0.

In option (3), we have A is the brother of B who is the mother of C. Clearly, A is the uncle of C. So, there is a gap of one generation between A and C. Here, the gap between A and B is zero (as A and B are brothers and therefore of the same generation) and that between B and C is 1 (as B is the mother of C). So, the gap between A and C is 0 + 1 = 1.

In option (4), we have A is the mother of B, who is the wife of C who is the son of D. Clearly, A is the samdhan of D and the generation gap between them is zero. Here, the gap between A and B is 1 (because A is the mother of B) that between B and C is zero (as they are husband and wife and hence, no generation gap) that between C and D is minus one or -1 (as C is a son of D). So the total gap between A and D is 1 + 0 + (-1) = 0.

**Question 14: These questions are based on the following information.**

P © Q means Q is the brother of P.

P # Q means P is the daughter of Q.

P = Q means Q is the sister of P.

P ^ Q means P is the son of Q.

P * Q means P is the father of Q.

P @ Q means P is the mother of Q.

**(A) Which of the following can be a correct conclusion drawn from the expression Q ^ N @ S © M = P?**

(1). S is the brother of P

(2). N has two sons and two daughters

(3). S is the sister of Q

(4). P is the sister of Q

(5). None of the above

**(B) What does the expression P @ R = S © T ^ V mean?**

(1). V is the husband of P.

(2). R is the son of V.

(3). R is the daughter of V.

(4). V is the wife of P.

(5). None of these.

**(C) Which of the following indicates that C is the paternal uncle of D?**

(1). C ^ V # N @ L © D

(2). C ^ V ^ L @ N © D

(3). D ^ L ^ N @ V © C

(4). D ^ N # V @ L © C

(5). None of these

**(D) Which of the following indicates that Q is the daughter of N?**

(1). Q * P # C @ N @ V

(2). N * P # C @ Q @ V

(3). M @ N # R * Q

(4). M © Q = V # N

(5). None of these

**(E) Which of the following can be the correct conclusion drawn from the expression L = M # N © P * Q?**

(1). Q is the grandson of M

(2). L is the uncle of N.

(3). N is the uncle of Q.

(4). Q is the niece of N.

(5). None of these.

**Answer: (A). (4). P is the sister of Q.**

**(B). (1). V is the husband of P.**

**(C). (3). D ^ L ^ N @ V © C.**

**(D). (2). N * P # C @ Q @ V.**

**(E). (5) None of these**

**Solution:**

In this question, we will make 5 different generation trees. These generation trees will be made on the basis of the information given in each question.

According to the generation tree, it is clear that Q, S, M, and P are in the same generation. Hence, P is the sister of Q.

According to the generation tree,

Here, P is the mother of R and S. T and R are in the same generation, so T is the brother of R, while V is the father of T. Hence, It is clear that V is the husband of P.

From the equation (3), D ^ L ^ N @ V @ C.

Here, L is the father of D and C, V and L are in the same generation, so C is the brother of L. Hence, C is the paternal uncle of D.

(D)

From equation (2) N * P # C @ Q @ V.

Here, C is the wife of N and Q is the daughter of C. Hence, Q is the daughter of N.

(E)

According to the generation tree,

Here, the sex of Q is not known so the relation with M cannot be determined and the sex of L is also not known so the relation with N cannot be determined.

Relation between N and Q cannot be established due to the absence of sex.

Hence, none of the conclusions is correct from the given expression.

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April 5, 2024

Blood Relation is the study of determining the relation between kith and kin through a chain of relationships. Blood Relation involves the analysis of information showing blood relationships among members of a family.

It involves analysis of certain blood relations and then inferring based on given information. Hence, it shows the picture of relations within the family.

The problems on Blood Relations involve analysis of certain blood relations and then inferring on the basis of the given information. In this type of problem, you should give proper attention to find out the correct relation.

Some of the blood relations which are generally used in the question are given below in the tabular form:

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Mother’s or father’s son | Brother |

Mother’s or father’s daughter | Sister |

Father’s brother | Uncle |

Father’s sister | Aunt |

Father’s father | Grandfather |

Father’s mother | Grandmother |

Mother’s brother | Maternal Uncle |

Mother’s sister | Maternal Aunt |

Son’s wife | Daughter in law |

Daughter’s husband | Son in law |

Husband’s or wife’s sister | Sister-in-law |

Husband’s or wife’s brother | Brother-in-law |

Brother’s son | Nephew |

Brother’s Daughter | Niece |

Sister’s husband | Brother-in-law |

Brother’s wife | Sister-in-law |

Mother’s father | Maternal Grandfather |

Mother’s mother | Maternal Grandmother |

Mentioned below are some of the basic approaches related to how to solve blood relation questions easily: -

- In the question, if it is not mentioned about paternal or maternal. By default, we consider the paternal type.
- We cannot determine the gender of a person by name.
- Whenever in the question it is given that there is a male we have to denote that with a (square) or by a ‘+’ (plus) sign.
- Whenever in the question it is given that there is a female we have to denote that with a (circle) sign or by a ‘-’ (minus) sign.
- Always solve statements in generations.
- Always be careful about “He” and “She” because from this you can determine gender.
- Whenever in the question it is given that A is a husband of B then we will show their relationship like this: By writing like this it will become easy to understand their relation and gender both.
- Whenever in the question it is given that C is the brother of D then we show their relationship like this: By writing like this it will be easier to understand their relationship.
- Whenever in the question it is given that A is a husband of B and C is a son of A and D is a daughter of A we will show their relationship like this

Now here we are providing you the ‘Generation Tree’ which will help you to understand the concept of Blood Relation more clearly.

**Read more:** **NID Entrance Exam**

To help you get an idea about the type of questions asked from blood relation topic, we have provided few sample questions curated from the **previous year's NID Question Papers**.

**Type 𝟏 - Language Based**

In such types of problems, the relationship between two people is given through a roundabout description relating them to other people. A roundabout description can be in the form of statements made by a person. Candidates are advised to go through the chain of relationships and determine the relationship between the objects.

Further Language-based questions are also divided into two ways i.e.,

𝟣. Direct language

𝟸. Indirect Language.

**Read more: ****NIFT Entrance Exam**

**𝟏. Direct Language **

In such types of questions, a roundabout description about a particular person is entertained through another person directly.

**Example no. ****𝟏****: **Looking at the portrait of a man. Dharmesh said, “His mother is the wife of my father’s son. Brothers and sisters I have none”. Whose portrait was Dharmesh looking at?

(𝟣). His son

(𝟸). His cousin

(𝟹). His uncle

(𝟺). His nephew

(𝟻), None of these

**Answer: (𝟣). His Son**

**Solution:**

According to the generation tree,

Here, my father’s son means Dharmesh itself because it is mentioned earlier that Dharmesh has no brother and no sister. So, he is the only son of his father. Now, the wife of my father’s son means wife of Dharmesh. Hence, the man in the portrait is the son of Dharmesh

**Read more: ****UCEED Entrance Exam**

**Example no. 𝟮: **When Abhay saw Mangal, he recalled, “He is the son of the father of my daughter’s mother”. How is Mangal related to Abhay?

(𝟣). Brother-in-Law

(𝟸). Brother

(𝟹). Cousin

(𝟺). Uncle

(𝟻), Nephew

**Answer: (𝟭) Brother-in-Law**

**Solution:**

According to the generation tree,

Here, from the above generation tree, it is clear that Mangal is the brother of Abhay’s wife. Hence, Mangal is the brother-in-law of Abhay.

**𝟮. Indirect Language**

Such questions are introduced without pointing to any specific person but a roundabout description of a family is given. Candidates are required to co-relate all the given conditions and answer the questions accordingly.

**Example no. 𝟏: **D is the brother of B. M is the brother of B. K is the father of M. T is the wife of K. How is B related to T?

(𝟣). Son

(𝟸). Daughter

(𝟹). Son or Daughter

(𝟺). Data Inadequate

(𝟻), None of these

**Answer: (𝟯) Son or Daughter**

**Solution:**

According to the Generation Tree,

Here, from the above generation tree,

it is clear that the sex of B is unknown. So, B is either son or daughter of T.

**Example no. 𝟐: **A is the father of C and D is the son of B. E is the brother of A. if C is the sister of D. How is B related to E?

(𝟣). Daughter

(𝟸). Brother-in-Law

(𝟹). Husband

(𝟺). Sister-in-Law

(𝟻), None of these

**Answer: (𝟒) Sister-in-Law**

**Solution:**

According to the Generation Tree,

Here, from the above generation tree it is clear that A is the father of C and C is the sister of D. So, A is the father of D. D is the son of B, so B is the wife of A. E is the brother of A. Hence, B is the sister-in-law of E.

**Type 𝟮 - Equation-Based**

Such types of problems involve relationship strings that are coded in a particular fashion. Here, relations are presented in the form of equations having specific symbols with explanatory notification. Candidates are required to decode each and every relation and then interpret the given relationship string.

Further equation-based questions are also divided into two ways i.e.,

𝟣. Forward Relation

𝟸. Backward Relation.

**𝟏. Forward Relation **

In such types of relation, always the first person is introduced by the second person. Such equations are operated from left to right i.e A + B means A is the mother of B. Now, in A + B, A appears first and B later. So, the first person (A) is the mother of the second person (B).

**Example no. ****𝟏****: **Read the following information carefully and answer the question accordingly.

P + Q means P is the brother of Q.

P x Q means P is the father Q.

P - Q means P is the sister of Q.

**𝟏. Which of the following represents S as the niece of T?**

(𝟣). T x S + M - K

(𝟸). T x M + S - K

(𝟹). K - S x M + T

(𝟺). T x M x S - K

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟺). T x M x S - K**

**Solution:**

From equations (1) and (3) from the question, it is clear that S must be female in sex. But in both the equations S is a male in sex.

In Equation (1), S is followed by the symbol (+) which indicates that S is the brother of M. So, S cannot be the niece of T.

In Equation (3), S is followed by the symbol (x) which indicates that S is the father of M. Hence, S cannot be the niece of T.

From Equation (2), T x M + S - K, here S is followed by the symbol (-) which indicates that S is the sister of K, but the relation with T does not describe that S is the niece of T. Here, T is the father of S. Hence, S cannot be the niece of T.

From Equation (4), T + M x S - K, here S is followed by the symbol (-) which indicates that S is the sister of K, the relation between M x S indicates that M is the father of S, and Relation between T + M indicates that T is the brother of M. On relating all the relations, it is clear that S is the niece of T.

According to the generation tree, T + M x S - K

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that since S is the daughter of M and T is the brother of M. S is the niece of T.

**How is K related to R in the expression K x N + T - S x R?**

(𝟣). Father

(𝟸). Mother

(𝟹). Brother

(𝟺). Uncle

(𝟻). Grandfather

**Answer: (𝟻). Grandfather**

**Solution:**

According to the generation tree,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that since K is the father of S and S is also the father of R. Hence, K is the grandfather of R.

**𝟮. Backward Relation**

In such a type of relation, always the second person is introduced by the first person. Such equations are operated from right to left. I.e., A + B means B is the mother of A. Now in A + B, B appears later and A appears first. So, the second person (B) is the mother of the first-person (A).

**Example no. ****𝟏****: **Read the following information carefully and answer the question accordingly.

P x Q means Q is the wife of P.

P + Q means Q is the father of P.

P ÷ Q means Q is the mother of P.

P - Q means Q is the sister of P.

**𝟏. Which of the following expressions represents J as the grandmother of R?**

(𝟣). R + B x L - J

(𝟸). R - B ÷ L + J

(𝟹). R ÷ B + L x J

(𝟺). R + B ÷ L + J

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟹). R ÷ B + L x J**

**Solution: **

From the equations, it is clear that J must be female in sex, but in Equations (2) and (4), J is male. Hence, these cannot be the answer choice.

In equations (2) and (4), J is preceded by the symbol (+) which indicates that J is the father of L. Hence, here J can never be the grandmother.

From equation (1), R + B x L - J, here J is preceded by the symbol (-) which indicates that J is the sister of L. Relation between B x L indicates that L is the wife of B, the relation between R + B indicates that B is the father of R. Hence, where J is the maternal aunt of R.

From Equation (3), R ÷ B + L x J, here J is preceded by the symbol (x) which indicates that J is the wife of L, the relation between B + L indicates that L is the father of B, and the relation between R ÷ B indicates that B is the mother of R. On relating all the relations, it is clear that J is the mother of R’s mother B. Hence, J is the grandmother of R.

According to the generation tree,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that B is the mother of R and J is the wife of B’s father L. Hence, J is the grandmother of R.

**2. How is T related to N in the following expression N + M - O ÷ T?**

(𝟣). Mother

(𝟸). Father

(𝟹). Grandmother

(𝟺). Grandfather

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟹). Grandmother**

**Solution:**

Given the equation: N + M - O ÷ T

According to the generation tree,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that T is the mother of N’s father M. Hence, T is the grandmother of N here.

There are some of the important Blood Relation questions and their answers mentioned below for your practice and for understanding the tricks and unique methods to solve the Blood Relation question easily.

**Question 1: **Diwaker said to Ayush, “That boy singing a song is the younger of the two brothers of the daughter of my father’s wife,”. How is the boy singing a song related to Diwaker?

(𝟣). Son

(𝟸). Brother

(𝟹). Cousin

(𝟺). Nephew

(𝟻). Brother-in-Law

**Answer: (𝟸). Brother**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that the daughter of my father’s wife is to be my sister. So, Diwaker’s sister has two brothers, one is Diwaker and another is a boy who is singing a song. Hence, the boy singing the song is the brother of Diwaker.

**Question 2: **Pointing to Gunjan, the father of Ruby says, “She is the daughter of the only daughter of the wife of the only son of the grandfather of my sister”. How is Shreya related to Gunjan if their cousin is the sister of Ruby?

(𝟣). Mother

(𝟸). Aunt

(𝟹). Niece

(𝟺). Cousin

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟺). Cousin**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

Here, from the above generation tree, it is clear that the only son of the grandfather of my sister is to be the father of Ruby’s father and Gunjan is the daughter of Ruby’s father’s sister. So, Ruby and Gunjan both are cousins. Hence, Shreya is the cousin of Gunjan.

**Question 3: **Pointing to a lady, a girl said, “She is the daughter-in-law of the grandmother of my father’s only son”. How is the lady related to that girl?

(𝟣). Sister-in-law

(𝟸). Mother

(𝟹). Aunt

(𝟺). Mother-in-law

(𝟻). Cousin

**Answer: (𝟸). Mother**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

Here, from the above generation tree, we can easily see that my father’s only son means my brother. My brother's grandmother is my grandmother. Daughter - in - law of my grandmother is my mother. Hence, the lady is the mother of that girl.

**Question 4: **P’s father is Q’s son. M is the paternal uncle of P and N is the brother of Q. How is N related to M?

(𝟣). Brother

(𝟸). Nephew

(𝟹). Cousin

(𝟺). Data Inadequate

(𝟻). None of these

**Answer: (𝟺). Data Inadequate**

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

As per the above generation tree, it is clear that P’s father is Q’s son. P’s father and M are brothers. Since the sex of Q is not known and N is the brother of Q. if Q is a male then N is the paternal uncle of M but Q is a female then N is the maternal uncle of M. Hence, data is inadequate.

**Question 5: **A is the son of B. C, B’s sister has a son D and a daughter E. F is the maternal uncle of D

**(𝐀) How is A related to D?**

(𝟣) Cousin

(𝟸) Nephew

(𝟹) Uncle

(𝟺) Brother

(𝟻) None of these

**(𝐁) How is E related to F?**

(𝟣) Sister

(𝟸) Daughter

(𝟹) Niece

(𝟺) Wife

(𝟻). None of these

**(𝐂) How many nephews does F have?**

(𝟣) Nil

(𝟸) One

(𝟹) Two

(𝟺) Three

(𝟻). More than Three

**Answer: (A). (1). Cousin**

**(B) (3). Niece**

**(𝐂) (3). Two **

**Solution:**

As per the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree below,

Here as per the above generation tree, we will answer the question asked.

(𝐀) Since A and D are in the same generation, A must be a cousin of D.

(𝐁)** ** As you can see in the above generation tree, it is clearly mentioned that F is the brother of E’s mother. Hence, E is the niece of F.

(𝐂) It is clear in the above generation tree that F has two nephews i.e., A and D.

**Question 6: **A is the father of C but C is not his son. E is the daughter of C. F is the spouse of A. B is the brother of C. D is the son of B. G is the spouse of B. H is the father of G.

**(A) Who is the grandmother of D?**

(1) A

(2) C

(3) F

(4) H

(5) None of these

**(B). Who is the son of F?**

(1) B

(2) C

(3) D

(4) E

(5) None of these

**Answer: (A). (3). F**

**(B). (1). B**

**Solution:**

According to the information given in the question, we will make a generation tree.

Now, after making the generation tree we will try to solve the questions asked.

(A). As we can see in the above generation tree, C is the sister of B and A is the father of C. So, A is the father of B then F is the mother of B. Now D is the son of B. Hence, F is the grandmother of D.

(B). it is clear from the above-made generation tree that B is the son of F.

**Question 7: Study the information given below and answer the questions that follow.**

There are five persons P, Q, R, S, and T. One is a football player, one is a chess player and one is a hockey player. P and S are unmarried ladies and do not participate in any game. None of the ladies plays chess or football. There is a married couple in which T is the husband. Q is the brother of R and is neither a chess player nor a hockey player.

**(A). Who is the football player?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(B). Who is the hockey player?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(C) Who is the chess player?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(D). Which is the wife of T?**

(1). P

(2). Q

(3). R

(4). S

(5). T

**(E). The three ladies in the family are**

(1). P, Q, R

(2). Q, R, S

(3). P, Q, S

(4). P, R, S

(5). None of these

**Answer: (A). (2). Q**

**(B). (3). R**

**(C). (5). T**

**(D). (3). R**

**(E). (4). R, P, and S. **

**Solution:**

According to the given information, we will make a generation tree first and then solve the questions related to that generation tree.

After making the generation tree we will answer the questions given related to the above generation tree.

(A). As you can see in the above generation tree that Q is playing football and Q is female also. Hence, the answer is Q.

(B). As you can see in the above generation tree that R is playing hockey and R is female also. Hence, the answer is R.

(C). As you can see in the above generation tree, T is playing chess and T is male also. Hence, the answer is T.

(D). It is clear from the above generation tree, that R is the wife of T. and R is a hockey player and T is the chess player.

(E). From the above generation tree,

it is clear that R, P, and S are the three female members of the family.

**Question 8: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it.**

(i). P, Q, R, S, T, and U are six members of a family in which there are two married couples.

(ii). R, a male member, is neither lightest nor the heaviest in the family.

(iii). T is lighter than R. P, the grandmother in the family is the lightest.

(iv). S is the sister of U. Both S and U are heavier than Q.

(v). Q is the mother of S and heavier than R.

**(A). How many female members are there in the family?**

(1). Data Inadequate

(2). Two

(3). Four

(4). Three

(5). None of these

**(B). How is T related to S?**

(1). Grandfather

(2). Sister

(3). Mother

(4). Data Inadequate

(5). None of these

**(C). How is R related to U? **

(1). Brother

(2). Father

(3). Uncle

(4). Cousin

(5). None of these

**(D). Which of the following is a pair of married couples?**

(1). PS

(2). QR

(3). PQ

(4). QT

(5). None of these

**(E). Who among the following will be in second place, if all the members in the family are arranged in the descending order of their weight?**

(1). S

(2). U

(3). S or U

(4). Data Inadequate

(5). None of these

**Answer: (A). (1). Data Inadequate**

**(B). (4). Data Inadequate**

**(C). (5). None of these**

**(D). (5). None of these**

**(E). (3). S or U **

**Solution:**

According to the given information, this type of generation tree will be prepared.

As per the generation tree above, we will answer the questions.

(A). As we can see in the above generation tree the sex of U is not known, so the number of females in the family cannot be determined. Hence, the answer will be an option (1) i.e. Data inadequate.

(B). It is clear from the above generation tree that T is either a father or a grandfather of S. we don't have adequate data to tell T’s relation with S. So, the answer will be an option (4) i.e. data inadequate.

(C). As per the above generation tree, it is clear that R’s relationship with U will be either a father or a grandfather. So, we don’t have enough data to prove any of one confirmed relationship of R with U. So, the answer will be an option (5) i.e. None of these.

(D). As you can see in the above generation tree there is no confirmed information about the generation of R and T. So, in that case, we can’t determine the married couples in the family. Hence, the answer will be an option (5) i.e. None of these.

(E). It is clear from the above generation tree that either S or U will be in second place when all the family members are arranged in descending order of their weights. Hence the answer will be an option (3) i.e. S or U.

**Question 9: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions based on them.**

(i). There is a family of six members A, B, C, D, E, and F.

(ii). There are two married couples in the family and the family members represent three generations.

(iii). Each member has a distinct choice of color amongst green, yellow, black, red, white, and pink.

(iv). No lady member likes either green or white.

(v). C, who likes the black color, is the daughter-in-law of E.

(vi). B is the brother of F and son of D and likes pink.

(vii). A is the grandmother of F and F does not like red.

(viii). The husband has a choice of green color, his wife likes yellow.

**(A) Which of the following is true about F?**

(1). Brother of B

(2). Sister of B

(3). Either (1) or (2)

(4). Daughter of C

(5). None of these

**(B) Which of the following is one of the married couples?**

(1). CD

(2). DA

(3). AC

(4). Cannot be determined

(5). None of these

**(C) How many male members are there in the family?**

(1). Two

(2). Three

(3). Four

(4). Cannot be determined

(5). None of these

**(D) Which of the following is the color combination of one of the couples?**

(1). Yellow - Red

(2). Green - Black

(3). Red - Yellow

(4). Yellow - Green.

(5). None of these

**(E) Which of the following is the color preference of A?**

(1). Red

(2). Yellow

(3). Either yellow or red

(4). Cannot be determined

(5). None of these

**Answer: (A). (3). Either (1) or (2)**

**(B). (1) CD**

**(C). (4) Cannot be determined**

**(D). (4). Yellow - Green**

**(E). (2) Yellow**

**Solution:**

According to the given information, we have prepared a generation tree.

Below you can see the generation tree of the given information.

(A). It is clear from the above generation tree that F is either brother or Sister of B. hence, the answer is option (3) i.e. Either (1) or (2).

(B). It is evident from the above generation tree that C and D are married couples. Hence, the answer is option (1) i.e. CD.

(C). It is clear from the above generation tree, since, the sex of F is not known, so the number of male members cannot be determined. Hence, the answer is an option (4) i.e. Cannot be determined.

(D). It is evident from the above generation tree that Yellow - Green is the color combination of couple E and A. Hence, the answer is an option (4) i.e. Yellow - Green.

(E). As you can see in the above generation tree that A likes yellow color. Hence, the answer is an option (2) i.e. Yellow.

**Question 10: **If A + B means B is the brother of A; A x B means B is the husband of A; A - B means A is the mother of B and A % B means A is the father of B. Which of the following relations shows that Q is the grandmother of T?

(1). Q - P + R % T

(2). P x Q % R - T

(3). Q x P % R + T

(4). P + Q % R - T

(5). None of these

**Answer: (3). Q x P % R + T**

**Solution:**

According to the question, we will make a generation tree.

This is the generation tree created by using the information given in the question so as per this generation tree it is clear that P is the mother of T and Q is the mother of P. So, Q must be the grandmother of T.

**Question 11: **If P + Q means P is the father of Q, P x Q means P is the brother of Q, P - Q means P is the mother of Q, then which of the following is definitely true about C - A + B?

(1). B is the son of A

(2). A is the son of C

(3). B is the father of A

(4). C is the mother of B

(5). B is the daughter of A

**Answer: (2). A is the son of C**

**Solution:**

Below you will find the generation tree made on the basis of the given information.

It is clear from the above generation tree that A is the father of B and C is the mother of A. So, A is the son of C is definitely true.

**Question 12: Read the following information carefully and answer the question.**

A + B means A is the father of B.

A - B means A is the mother of B.

A x B means A is the brother of B.

A ÷ B means A is the sister of B.

**1. Which of the following means that A is the grandmother of B?**

(1). A + B x C - D ÷ F

(2). A x C - D + B x F

(3). A - B - C + D + E

(4). A-C x B + D ÷ F

(5). None of these

**Answer: (5). None of these**

**Solution:**

Here in this question since A is to be the grandmother of B. A must be a female. But the very first words in options (1) and (2) mean that A is a male. Because in option (1), A + B means A is the father (a male) of B and in option (2), A x C means A is brother (a male) of C.

Therefore, in these two choices, we don’t need to look any further and straight away eliminate them.

Now, we must look for options (3) and (4) which indicate A is a female, but going through with them an option (3) A is the mother of B but in option (4), A is the mother of B’s brother C, Hence, A is the mother of B.

So, none of the options give the answer.

**Question 13: Consider the following information and answer the question.**

A + B means A is the father of B.

A x B means A is the brother of B.

A - B means A is the mother of B.

A @ B means A is the wife of B.

A $ B means A is the son of B.

(1). A + B + C

(2). A x B x C

(3). A x B - C

(4). A - B @ C $ D

(5). None of these

**Answer: (5) None of these**

**Solution:**

In option (1), we have A as the father of B and B as the father of C. Clearly, A is the grandfather of C.

The generation gap is two between A and C. The gap between A and B is 1 (because A is the father of B). Similarly, the gap between B and C is 1. So, the gap between A and C is 1 + 1 = 2.

In option (2), we have A is the brother of B who is the brother of C. Clearly, A is the brother of C. So, there is no i.e., zero generation gap.

The gap between A and B is 0 (as A and B are of the same generation, i.e., brothers) and that gap between B and C is also 0. So, the gap between A and C is 0 + 0 = 0.

In option (3), we have A is the brother of B who is the mother of C. Clearly, A is the uncle of C. So, there is a gap of one generation between A and C. Here, the gap between A and B is zero (as A and B are brothers and therefore of the same generation) and that between B and C is 1 (as B is the mother of C). So, the gap between A and C is 0 + 1 = 1.

In option (4), we have A is the mother of B, who is the wife of C who is the son of D. Clearly, A is the samdhan of D and the generation gap between them is zero. Here, the gap between A and B is 1 (because A is the mother of B) that between B and C is zero (as they are husband and wife and hence, no generation gap) that between C and D is minus one or -1 (as C is a son of D). So the total gap between A and D is 1 + 0 + (-1) = 0.

**Question 14: These questions are based on the following information.**

P © Q means Q is the brother of P.

P # Q means P is the daughter of Q.

P = Q means Q is the sister of P.

P ^ Q means P is the son of Q.

P * Q means P is the father of Q.

P @ Q means P is the mother of Q.

**(A) Which of the following can be a correct conclusion drawn from the expression Q ^ N @ S © M = P?**

(1). S is the brother of P

(2). N has two sons and two daughters

(3). S is the sister of Q

(4). P is the sister of Q

(5). None of the above

**(B) What does the expression P @ R = S © T ^ V mean?**

(1). V is the husband of P.

(2). R is the son of V.

(3). R is the daughter of V.

(4). V is the wife of P.

(5). None of these.

**(C) Which of the following indicates that C is the paternal uncle of D?**

(1). C ^ V # N @ L © D

(2). C ^ V ^ L @ N © D

(3). D ^ L ^ N @ V © C

(4). D ^ N # V @ L © C

(5). None of these

**(D) Which of the following indicates that Q is the daughter of N?**

(1). Q * P # C @ N @ V

(2). N * P # C @ Q @ V

(3). M @ N # R * Q

(4). M © Q = V # N

(5). None of these

**(E) Which of the following can be the correct conclusion drawn from the expression L = M # N © P * Q?**

(1). Q is the grandson of M

(2). L is the uncle of N.

(3). N is the uncle of Q.

(4). Q is the niece of N.

(5). None of these.

**Answer: (A). (4). P is the sister of Q.**

**(B). (1). V is the husband of P.**

**(C). (3). D ^ L ^ N @ V © C.**

**(D). (2). N * P # C @ Q @ V.**

**(E). (5) None of these**

**Solution:**

In this question, we will make 5 different generation trees. These generation trees will be made on the basis of the information given in each question.

According to the generation tree, it is clear that Q, S, M, and P are in the same generation. Hence, P is the sister of Q.

According to the generation tree,

Here, P is the mother of R and S. T and R are in the same generation, so T is the brother of R, while V is the father of T. Hence, It is clear that V is the husband of P.

From the equation (3), D ^ L ^ N @ V @ C.

Here, L is the father of D and C, V and L are in the same generation, so C is the brother of L. Hence, C is the paternal uncle of D.

(D)

From equation (2) N * P # C @ Q @ V.

Here, C is the wife of N and Q is the daughter of C. Hence, Q is the daughter of N.

(E)

According to the generation tree,

Here, the sex of Q is not known so the relation with M cannot be determined and the sex of L is also not known so the relation with N cannot be determined.

Relation between N and Q cannot be established due to the absence of sex.

Hence, none of the conclusions is correct from the given expression.

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