Civil vs. Criminal Litigation: Understanding the Key Differences

Author : Shashwat Srivastava

Updated On : February 9, 2024

SHARE

Reader's Digest: Curious about the legal battles that unfold in our justice system? Civil vs. criminal litigation offers a fascinating glimpse into the different facets of legal proceedings. Read on to understand the nuances, consequences, and the impact of these cases on individuals and society as a whole. 

In the intricate world of legal proceedings, it's crucial to grasp the distinctions between civil and criminal litigation, especially in the context of the Indian legal system. These two categories of litigation serve different purposes and follow separate procedures.

online law certificate courses

online law certificate courses

This article will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of civil vs. criminal litigation in India, shedding light on their unique characteristics, procedures, and objectives. So let's begin!

Key Contents

  1. Introduction to the significance of understanding civil and criminal litigation in India.
  2. Definition and objectives of civil litigation, covering typical cases.
  3. Explanation of criminal litigation, including the types of cases and objectives.
  4. Overview of India's legal framework and its role in shaping civil and criminal laws.
  5. Identification of key parties in civil and criminal cases.
  6. Differentiation of the burden and standard of proof in these two types of litigation.
  7. Comparison of the remedies and penalties sought in civil and criminal litigation.
  8. Explanation of the distinct procedural steps in civil and criminal cases.
  9. The role of evidence in supporting claims and defenses in both litigation types.
  10. Discussion of the timeframes for resolution in civil and criminal cases.
  11. Exploration of the appeals process and the right to appeal in these litigations.
  12. Summarized key differences between civil and criminal litigation.

Join Our Upcoming Online Law Certificate Course Today!

What is Civil Litigation?

  • Definition: Civil litigation refers to legal disputes between individuals, organizations, or entities, where one party, known as the plaintiff, seeks compensation or specific remedies from another party, known as the defendant. It is governed by various legal provisions and statutes, including the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and specific laws pertaining to family matters, personal injury, property disputes, and contracts.

  • Parties Involved: In civil litigation, the parties involved are the plaintiff, who initiates the legal action, and the defendant, who responds to the allegations. These parties are guided by the rules outlined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, which provides the procedural framework for civil cases.

  • Types of Cases: Civil litigation encompasses a broad spectrum of cases, including contract disputes where parties fail to honor agreements, property disputes related to land or real estate, family law matters such as divorce and child custody, and personal injury claims arising from accidents or negligence. Each type of case is governed by specific laws and provisions outlined in the Indian legal system.

  • Objective: The primary objective of civil litigation is to provide a platform for resolving disputes and delivering remedies to the aggrieved party. The legal framework ensures that parties have the opportunity to present their case, provide evidence, and seek redress through judgments or settlements.

  • Bare Acts Utilized: In civil litigation, various Bare Acts and statutes are utilized, including the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, among others. These acts serve as the foundational legal texts that define rights, obligations, and procedures in civil cases.

Don't Miss - How to Draft Legal Notice for Defamation?

What is Criminal Litigation?

  • Definition: Criminal litigation pertains to cases where the government, through the prosecution, charges an individual or entity with a crime. It is regulated by a set of legal provisions and statutes, primarily the Indian Penal Code, 1860, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, and specific legislation addressing different categories of crimes.

  • Parties Involved: In criminal litigation, the key parties are the prosecution, which represents the government's interests, and the defendant, who is accused of committing a crime. The legal process is governed by the procedures outlined in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

  • Types of Cases: Criminal litigation encompasses a wide range of offenses, from theft and assault to more severe crimes such as murder, rape, and financial fraud. Each type of crime is defined and classified under the Indian Penal Code, 1860, or other specialized statutes, with specific penalties prescribed for each.

  • Objective: The primary objective of criminal litigation is to uphold the rule of law and maintain social order by punishing individuals or entities that have violated the law. This is achieved through penalties such as fines, probation, community service, or imprisonment.

  • Bare Acts Utilized: In criminal litigation, the primary Bare Act used is the Indian Penal Code, 1860, which defines various criminal offenses and their corresponding penalties. Additionally, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the procedural aspects of criminal trials, including the investigation, arrest, trial, and appeals process. Specific laws such as the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, or the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, are employed for cases related to drug offenses or corruption, respectively. These Bare Acts serve as the cornerstone of the legal framework in criminal litigation, guiding the prosecution and defense in their respective roles.

Check Now - Best Contract Drafting Books 

online law certificate courses

online law certificate courses

Legal Framework

  • Indian Legal System:

    • The Indian legal system provides the structure for handling both civil and criminal cases.
    • It's important to understand that India's legal system is rooted in English common law, which has been shaping our legal practices for many years.
  • Constitutional Guidance:

    • The Constitution of India is like our rulebook. It contains the fundamental principles and rights that guide both civil and criminal laws.
    • Think of it as the foundation upon which our legal system is built.
  • Two Sides of the Coin:

    • Civil vs criminal litigation is like two sides of the same coin.
    • Both types of cases follow the rules and principles outlined in our legal framework.

Parties Involved

  • Civil Litigation:

    • The Plaintiff: The person who starts the case is called the plaintiff.

    • They believe someone did them wrong and they want justice or compensation.

    • The plaintiff is like the person who throws the first punch in a legal fight.

    • The Defendant: The defendant is the one being accused by the plaintiff.

    • They have to respond to the allegations made by the plaintiff.

    • It's like being the one who has to defend themselves in a dispute.

  • Criminal Litigation:

    • The Prosecution: In criminal cases, it's the government or state that brings the charges.

    • Imagine it as the government saying, "Hey, you did something wrong, and we're taking you to court for it."

    • The Accused (Defendant): The accused person is the one facing these charges.

    • They have to defend themselves against the accusations made by the government.

    • It's like being the person who needs to prove they didn't do something illegal.

How to: Draft a Contract for Services

Burden of Proof

  • In Civil Litigation:

    • The burden of proof in civil cases is on the plaintiff.
    • They need to prove their case by a preponderance of the evidence.
      • This means they must show that it's more likely than not that their claims are true.
    • For example, in a civil case about a car accident, the plaintiff must show that it's more likely that the defendant is at fault.
  • In Criminal Litigation:

    • In criminal cases, the burden of proof is on the prosecution.
    • The prosecution must prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
      • This is a tougher standard.
    • It means that there should be no reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime.
    • For example, in a criminal case for theft, the prosecution needs to prove that there is no reasonable doubt that the defendant stole something.

Learn: How to Draft a Business Contract

Standard of Proof

  • In Civil Litigation:

    • The standard of proof in civil cases is relatively lower.
    • It's based on a preponderance of the evidence.
      • This means that the evidence should favor one party's argument more than the other.
    • In simple terms, it's like tipping the scales of justice just slightly in one direction.
  • In Criminal Litigation:

    • The standard of proof in criminal cases is much higher.
    • It's beyond a reasonable doubt.
      • This is a tougher standard to meet.
    • The evidence must be compelling, leaving no reasonable doubt about the defendant's guilt.
    • Think of it as needing to be 100% sure that the defendant committed the crime.

Read More - How to Learn Contract Drafting?

Remedies and Penalties

  • Civil Litigation:

    • Aim: It tries to help the person who feels wronged (aggrieved).
    • Remedies: These are like solutions to make things right.
      • Monetary Compensation: This means giving money to the person who suffered a loss.
      • Injunctions: These are like orders from the court telling someone to stop doing something.
      • Specific Performance of a Contract: Sometimes, the court can make someone do what they promised in a contract.
  • Criminal Litigation:

    • Aim: It's about punishing people who did something against the law.
    • Penalties: These are like punishments for breaking the rules.
      • Fines: You have to pay an amount of money as punishment.
      • Probation: It's like being on good behavior under the watch of the law.
      • Community Service: You may have to do some work for the community.
      • Imprisonment: This is when you have to stay in jail for a period, depending on how serious the crime was.

Also Read - How to Practice Legal Drafting Like a Pro? 

Procedure

The procedures for civil and criminal litigation differ significantly. In civil cases, the process often begins with the filing of a complaint by the plaintiff. The defendant then responds, and the case proceeds through discovery, settlement negotiations, trial (if necessary), and appeal.

In criminal cases, the process begins with the filing of charges by the prosecution. The accused is then arrested, and the case proceeds through various stages, including arraignment, bail, pre-trial motions, trial, and sentencing.

Role of Evidence

  • Civil Litigation:

    • Purpose: Evidence is used to support what the plaintiff is saying or to defend against the claims.
    • Types of Evidence: This can be things like documents, people's statements, expert opinions, or any proof that helps prove or disprove the case.
  • Criminal Litigation:

    • Purpose: Evidence is used to show if the accused person is guilty or not.
    • Types of Evidence: It includes things like witnesses' testimonies, physical evidence (like a weapon), documents, or anything that helps the prosecution prove the accused's guilt or the defense establish doubt.

Learn: Draft a Contract of Sale

Timeframe

Another key difference lies in the timeframe. Civil cases tend to take longer to resolve than criminal cases. Civil litigation can stretch over several months or even years due to complex procedures and extensive documentation.

Criminal cases, on the other hand, often move more swiftly. This is partly due to constitutional protections like the right to a speedy trial, which ensures that criminal cases are resolved within a reasonable timeframe.

Appeals and Appellate Courts

  • Civil Appeals

    • If you're unhappy with the decision in a civil case, you can appeal it.
    • The higher court will check if the decision was fair and correct.
    • This process is a chance to get a fresh look at your case.
  • Criminal Appeals

    • In criminal cases, the person found guilty can also appeal.
    • The appeal court will review what happened in the trial.
    • They make sure the person's rights were respected and the trial was fair.
  • Civil vs. Criminal Litigation Appeals

    • In both types, appeals are like a second chance.
    • You can ask a higher court to review the decision if you think it's wrong.
    • It's a way to ensure justice is done, no matter the type of case.

Read: What Is Business Law?

Key Differences Summarized

  • Nature of Litigation

    • Civil litigation is about resolving problems between people or organizations.
    • Criminal litigation deals with crimes and aims to punish wrongdoers.
  • Objectives

    • Civil cases aim to solve disputes and provide solutions.
    • Criminal cases focus on punishing those who broke the law.
  • Procedures

    • Civil and criminal cases follow different rules and steps.
    • Civil cases usually take more time than criminal ones.
  • Standards

    • In civil cases, you need to show it's more likely than not that you're right.
    • In criminal cases, proof must leave no reasonable doubt about guilt.
  • Penalties and Remedies

    • Civil cases result in remedies like compensation or orders.
    • Criminal cases lead to penalties such as fines or jail time.
  • Appeals

    • Both types allow appeals if you disagree with the decision.
    • Higher courts review to make sure justice was served.
  • Summary

    • Civil and criminal litigation serve different purposes.
    • One aims to solve problems, while the other aims to punish.
    • The rules, standards, and timelines differ significantly between them.

Check Out: Alternative Careers for Law Graduates

Key Takeaways

  1. Purpose Matters: Civil litigation seeks to resolve disputes and provide remedies, while criminal litigation aims to punish those who violate the law to maintain social order.

  2. Burden and Standard of Proof: In civil cases, the burden of proof is on the plaintiff, with a lower standard, while in criminal cases, it's on the prosecution with a much higher "beyond a reasonable doubt" standard.

  3. Remedies vs. Penalties: Civil litigation offers remedies like compensation or injunctions, whereas criminal litigation leads to penalties such as fines, probation, or imprisonment.

  4. Procedures Differ: The legal procedures, from filing to trial, vary significantly between civil and criminal cases.

  5. Role of Evidence: Evidence plays a critical role in both types of cases, either to support claims in civil litigation or to establish guilt or innocence in criminal litigation.

  6. Timeframe Variances: Civil cases can take months or years to resolve, while criminal cases often move more swiftly.

  7. Appeals Possible: Both types of cases can be appealed, allowing for a review of decisions by higher courts.

Frequently Asked Questions

hat is the fundamental difference between civil and criminal litigation?

What types of cases fall under civil litigation in India?

Can you explain the burden of proof in civil litigation?

What is the standard of proof in criminal litigation in India?

What are the typical penalties in criminal litigation cases in India?

How long does it take to resolve civil litigation cases in India?

Are there any constitutional protections related to the timeframe of criminal litigation in India?

Can both civil and criminal cases be appealed in India?

Civil vs. Criminal Litigation: Understanding the Key Differences

Author : Shashwat Srivastava

February 9, 2024

SHARE

Reader's Digest: Curious about the legal battles that unfold in our justice system? Civil vs. criminal litigation offers a fascinating glimpse into the different facets of legal proceedings. Read on to understand the nuances, consequences, and the impact of these cases on individuals and society as a whole. 

In the intricate world of legal proceedings, it's crucial to grasp the distinctions between civil and criminal litigation, especially in the context of the Indian legal system. These two categories of litigation serve different purposes and follow separate procedures.

online law certificate courses

online law certificate courses

This article will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of civil vs. criminal litigation in India, shedding light on their unique characteristics, procedures, and objectives. So let's begin!

Key Contents

  1. Introduction to the significance of understanding civil and criminal litigation in India.
  2. Definition and objectives of civil litigation, covering typical cases.
  3. Explanation of criminal litigation, including the types of cases and objectives.
  4. Overview of India's legal framework and its role in shaping civil and criminal laws.
  5. Identification of key parties in civil and criminal cases.
  6. Differentiation of the burden and standard of proof in these two types of litigation.
  7. Comparison of the remedies and penalties sought in civil and criminal litigation.
  8. Explanation of the distinct procedural steps in civil and criminal cases.
  9. The role of evidence in supporting claims and defenses in both litigation types.
  10. Discussion of the timeframes for resolution in civil and criminal cases.
  11. Exploration of the appeals process and the right to appeal in these litigations.
  12. Summarized key differences between civil and criminal litigation.

Join Our Upcoming Online Law Certificate Course Today!

What is Civil Litigation?

  • Definition: Civil litigation refers to legal disputes between individuals, organizations, or entities, where one party, known as the plaintiff, seeks compensation or specific remedies from another party, known as the defendant. It is governed by various legal provisions and statutes, including the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and specific laws pertaining to family matters, personal injury, property disputes, and contracts.

  • Parties Involved: In civil litigation, the parties involved are the plaintiff, who initiates the legal action, and the defendant, who responds to the allegations. These parties are guided by the rules outlined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, which provides the procedural framework for civil cases.

  • Types of Cases: Civil litigation encompasses a broad spectrum of cases, including contract disputes where parties fail to honor agreements, property disputes related to land or real estate, family law matters such as divorce and child custody, and personal injury claims arising from accidents or negligence. Each type of case is governed by specific laws and provisions outlined in the Indian legal system.

  • Objective: The primary objective of civil litigation is to provide a platform for resolving disputes and delivering remedies to the aggrieved party. The legal framework ensures that parties have the opportunity to present their case, provide evidence, and seek redress through judgments or settlements.

  • Bare Acts Utilized: In civil litigation, various Bare Acts and statutes are utilized, including the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, among others. These acts serve as the foundational legal texts that define rights, obligations, and procedures in civil cases.

Don't Miss - How to Draft Legal Notice for Defamation?

What is Criminal Litigation?

  • Definition: Criminal litigation pertains to cases where the government, through the prosecution, charges an individual or entity with a crime. It is regulated by a set of legal provisions and statutes, primarily the Indian Penal Code, 1860, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, and specific legislation addressing different categories of crimes.

  • Parties Involved: In criminal litigation, the key parties are the prosecution, which represents the government's interests, and the defendant, who is accused of committing a crime. The legal process is governed by the procedures outlined in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

  • Types of Cases: Criminal litigation encompasses a wide range of offenses, from theft and assault to more severe crimes such as murder, rape, and financial fraud. Each type of crime is defined and classified under the Indian Penal Code, 1860, or other specialized statutes, with specific penalties prescribed for each.

  • Objective: The primary objective of criminal litigation is to uphold the rule of law and maintain social order by punishing individuals or entities that have violated the law. This is achieved through penalties such as fines, probation, community service, or imprisonment.

  • Bare Acts Utilized: In criminal litigation, the primary Bare Act used is the Indian Penal Code, 1860, which defines various criminal offenses and their corresponding penalties. Additionally, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the procedural aspects of criminal trials, including the investigation, arrest, trial, and appeals process. Specific laws such as the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, or the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, are employed for cases related to drug offenses or corruption, respectively. These Bare Acts serve as the cornerstone of the legal framework in criminal litigation, guiding the prosecution and defense in their respective roles.

Check Now - Best Contract Drafting Books 

online law certificate courses

online law certificate courses

Legal Framework

  • Indian Legal System:

    • The Indian legal system provides the structure for handling both civil and criminal cases.
    • It's important to understand that India's legal system is rooted in English common law, which has been shaping our legal practices for many years.
  • Constitutional Guidance:

    • The Constitution of India is like our rulebook. It contains the fundamental principles and rights that guide both civil and criminal laws.
    • Think of it as the foundation upon which our legal system is built.
  • Two Sides of the Coin:

    • Civil vs criminal litigation is like two sides of the same coin.
    • Both types of cases follow the rules and principles outlined in our legal framework.

Parties Involved

  • Civil Litigation:

    • The Plaintiff: The person who starts the case is called the plaintiff.

    • They believe someone did them wrong and they want justice or compensation.

    • The plaintiff is like the person who throws the first punch in a legal fight.

    • The Defendant: The defendant is the one being accused by the plaintiff.

    • They have to respond to the allegations made by the plaintiff.

    • It's like being the one who has to defend themselves in a dispute.

  • Criminal Litigation:

    • The Prosecution: In criminal cases, it's the government or state that brings the charges.

    • Imagine it as the government saying, "Hey, you did something wrong, and we're taking you to court for it."

    • The Accused (Defendant): The accused person is the one facing these charges.

    • They have to defend themselves against the accusations made by the government.

    • It's like being the person who needs to prove they didn't do something illegal.

How to: Draft a Contract for Services

Burden of Proof

  • In Civil Litigation:

    • The burden of proof in civil cases is on the plaintiff.
    • They need to prove their case by a preponderance of the evidence.
      • This means they must show that it's more likely than not that their claims are true.
    • For example, in a civil case about a car accident, the plaintiff must show that it's more likely that the defendant is at fault.
  • In Criminal Litigation:

    • In criminal cases, the burden of proof is on the prosecution.
    • The prosecution must prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
      • This is a tougher standard.
    • It means that there should be no reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime.
    • For example, in a criminal case for theft, the prosecution needs to prove that there is no reasonable doubt that the defendant stole something.

Learn: How to Draft a Business Contract

Standard of Proof

  • In Civil Litigation:

    • The standard of proof in civil cases is relatively lower.
    • It's based on a preponderance of the evidence.
      • This means that the evidence should favor one party's argument more than the other.
    • In simple terms, it's like tipping the scales of justice just slightly in one direction.
  • In Criminal Litigation:

    • The standard of proof in criminal cases is much higher.
    • It's beyond a reasonable doubt.
      • This is a tougher standard to meet.
    • The evidence must be compelling, leaving no reasonable doubt about the defendant's guilt.
    • Think of it as needing to be 100% sure that the defendant committed the crime.

Read More - How to Learn Contract Drafting?

Remedies and Penalties

  • Civil Litigation:

    • Aim: It tries to help the person who feels wronged (aggrieved).
    • Remedies: These are like solutions to make things right.
      • Monetary Compensation: This means giving money to the person who suffered a loss.
      • Injunctions: These are like orders from the court telling someone to stop doing something.
      • Specific Performance of a Contract: Sometimes, the court can make someone do what they promised in a contract.
  • Criminal Litigation:

    • Aim: It's about punishing people who did something against the law.
    • Penalties: These are like punishments for breaking the rules.
      • Fines: You have to pay an amount of money as punishment.
      • Probation: It's like being on good behavior under the watch of the law.
      • Community Service: You may have to do some work for the community.
      • Imprisonment: This is when you have to stay in jail for a period, depending on how serious the crime was.

Also Read - How to Practice Legal Drafting Like a Pro? 

Procedure

The procedures for civil and criminal litigation differ significantly. In civil cases, the process often begins with the filing of a complaint by the plaintiff. The defendant then responds, and the case proceeds through discovery, settlement negotiations, trial (if necessary), and appeal.

In criminal cases, the process begins with the filing of charges by the prosecution. The accused is then arrested, and the case proceeds through various stages, including arraignment, bail, pre-trial motions, trial, and sentencing.

Role of Evidence

  • Civil Litigation:

    • Purpose: Evidence is used to support what the plaintiff is saying or to defend against the claims.
    • Types of Evidence: This can be things like documents, people's statements, expert opinions, or any proof that helps prove or disprove the case.
  • Criminal Litigation:

    • Purpose: Evidence is used to show if the accused person is guilty or not.
    • Types of Evidence: It includes things like witnesses' testimonies, physical evidence (like a weapon), documents, or anything that helps the prosecution prove the accused's guilt or the defense establish doubt.

Learn: Draft a Contract of Sale

Timeframe

Another key difference lies in the timeframe. Civil cases tend to take longer to resolve than criminal cases. Civil litigation can stretch over several months or even years due to complex procedures and extensive documentation.

Criminal cases, on the other hand, often move more swiftly. This is partly due to constitutional protections like the right to a speedy trial, which ensures that criminal cases are resolved within a reasonable timeframe.

Appeals and Appellate Courts

  • Civil Appeals

    • If you're unhappy with the decision in a civil case, you can appeal it.
    • The higher court will check if the decision was fair and correct.
    • This process is a chance to get a fresh look at your case.
  • Criminal Appeals

    • In criminal cases, the person found guilty can also appeal.
    • The appeal court will review what happened in the trial.
    • They make sure the person's rights were respected and the trial was fair.
  • Civil vs. Criminal Litigation Appeals

    • In both types, appeals are like a second chance.
    • You can ask a higher court to review the decision if you think it's wrong.
    • It's a way to ensure justice is done, no matter the type of case.

Read: What Is Business Law?

Key Differences Summarized

  • Nature of Litigation

    • Civil litigation is about resolving problems between people or organizations.
    • Criminal litigation deals with crimes and aims to punish wrongdoers.
  • Objectives

    • Civil cases aim to solve disputes and provide solutions.
    • Criminal cases focus on punishing those who broke the law.
  • Procedures

    • Civil and criminal cases follow different rules and steps.
    • Civil cases usually take more time than criminal ones.
  • Standards

    • In civil cases, you need to show it's more likely than not that you're right.
    • In criminal cases, proof must leave no reasonable doubt about guilt.
  • Penalties and Remedies

    • Civil cases result in remedies like compensation or orders.
    • Criminal cases lead to penalties such as fines or jail time.
  • Appeals

    • Both types allow appeals if you disagree with the decision.
    • Higher courts review to make sure justice was served.
  • Summary

    • Civil and criminal litigation serve different purposes.
    • One aims to solve problems, while the other aims to punish.
    • The rules, standards, and timelines differ significantly between them.

Check Out: Alternative Careers for Law Graduates

Key Takeaways

  1. Purpose Matters: Civil litigation seeks to resolve disputes and provide remedies, while criminal litigation aims to punish those who violate the law to maintain social order.

  2. Burden and Standard of Proof: In civil cases, the burden of proof is on the plaintiff, with a lower standard, while in criminal cases, it's on the prosecution with a much higher "beyond a reasonable doubt" standard.

  3. Remedies vs. Penalties: Civil litigation offers remedies like compensation or injunctions, whereas criminal litigation leads to penalties such as fines, probation, or imprisonment.

  4. Procedures Differ: The legal procedures, from filing to trial, vary significantly between civil and criminal cases.

  5. Role of Evidence: Evidence plays a critical role in both types of cases, either to support claims in civil litigation or to establish guilt or innocence in criminal litigation.

  6. Timeframe Variances: Civil cases can take months or years to resolve, while criminal cases often move more swiftly.

  7. Appeals Possible: Both types of cases can be appealed, allowing for a review of decisions by higher courts.

Frequently Asked Questions

hat is the fundamental difference between civil and criminal litigation?

What types of cases fall under civil litigation in India?

Can you explain the burden of proof in civil litigation?

What is the standard of proof in criminal litigation in India?

What are the typical penalties in criminal litigation cases in India?

How long does it take to resolve civil litigation cases in India?

Are there any constitutional protections related to the timeframe of criminal litigation in India?

Can both civil and criminal cases be appealed in India?

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