Partnership Act Notes and Study Material For Judiciary Preparation 2024

Author : Yogricha

Updated On : June 7, 2024

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Overview: Indian Partnership Act 1932 forms an important part in many State Judiciary examinations. It is not a major subject that is asked in all state judiciary exams, however Judiciary exam of Delhi, Gujarat, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, etc. include Indian Partnership Act.

We will be covering all important sections that have been asked previously in several State Judiciary Exams. This article includes all the key details that you need for your comprehensive preparation. Take a not of all the important topics, mark it in you bare act when you start your preparation. You can also download notes of partnership act PDF for judiciary Preparation from this article. 

In this article we will cover:

Overview of Indian Partnership Act 1932
Important sections 
Indian Partnership Act Notes for Judiciary for Prelims
Indian Partnership Act Mains centric Notes
Previous Year Questions for practice
Books for Indian Partnership Act

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Overview of Indian Partnership Act 1932

Indian Partnership Act is asked in the following State Judiciary exams:

  • Bihar Judiciary
  • Uttar Pradesh Judiciary
  • Gujarat Judiciary
  • Delhi Judiciary
  • Haryana Judiciary
  • Punjab Judiciary
  • Tamil Nadu Judiciary

In Bihar Judiciary and Gujarat Judiciary examination, Indian Partnership Act is asked in the Mains examination, and for other states it is asked in Prelims and Mains both. The aggregate weightage of Indian Partnership Act in all states Judiciary exams is 3-5% in Prelims and in Mains

Important sections from Indian Partnership Act for Judiciary preparation

  1. Section 4 - Definition of "Partnership": This section defines a partnership as the relation between persons who have agreed to share profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.
  2. Section 5 - Partnership at Will: Section 5 specifies that in the absence of a specific agreement, a partnership is considered a partnership at will, which can be dissolved by any partner giving notice to the other partners.
  3. Section 6 - Mode of Determining Existence of Partnership: Section 6 provides criteria for determining whether a group of persons is a partnership, considering factors like sharing profits, ownership of property, and involvement in business management.
  4. Section 8 - Rights and Duties of Partners: This section outlines the rights and duties of partners, including the right to take part in the business, the duty to act in good faith, and the duty to indemnify for losses.
  5. Section 11 - Implied Authority of a Partner: Section 11 discusses the implied authority of a partner to bind the firm to certain obligations and transactions.
  6. Section 12 - Partners Bound by Acts on Behalf of the Firm: Section 12 states that any act done by a partner in the ordinary course of business binds the firm.
  7. Section 16 - Continuing Authority of Partners for Purposes of Winding Up: This section addresses the authority of partners to bind the firm even after dissolution for the purpose of winding up the partnership affairs.
  8. Section 30 - Registration of Firms: Section 30 mandates the registration of firms and outlines the advantages and consequences of registration.
  9. Section 37 - Rights of Unregistered Firm: This section discusses the rights and liabilities of unregistered firms in legal proceedings.
  10. Section 40 - Dissolution of a Firm: Section 40 outlines the various modes of dissolution of a partnership firm, including dissolution by agreement, compulsory dissolution by the court, and dissolution due to insolvency or death of a partner.
  11. Section 46 - Mode of Settlement of Accounts Between Partners: This section specifies the rules for settling accounts between partners upon dissolution, including the order of payment of debts and distribution of surplus.
  12. Section 58 - Agreements in Restraint of Trade: Section 58 deals with agreements among partners that restrict a partner from carrying on competing businesses after the dissolution of the firm.
  13. Section 69 - Rights of Outgoing Partner to Carry on Competing Business: This section outlines the rights of an outgoing partner to carry on a competing business after retirement, subject to certain conditions.
  14. Section 72 - Sale of Goodwill After Dissolution: Section 72 allows the sale of the goodwill of the firm after dissolution, with the consent of all the partners.
  15. Section 76 - Right of Incoming Partner to Share Profits or Losses: This section discusses the rights of an incoming partner to share profits or losses from the date of joining the firm.

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Indian Partnership Act Notes for Judiciary for Prelims

These are short notes for your Judiciary Prelims Preparation, you must focus on the section number, key elements, explanations and expections. In this section we will discuss all the important sections and their explanations for your preparation.

Introduction to Indian Partnership Act for Judiciary:

The act provides a comprehensive legal framework for governing partnerships and regulating the rights and obligations of partners in India. Partnerships arise from a contractual agreement and are regulated by the Partnership Act of 1932. Additionally, the final provisions of the Indian Contract Act are applicable to partnerships in areas where the Partnership Act does not provide specific guidance. It is explicitly stated that any provision of the Indian Contract Act that has not been repealed will apply to partnerships, unless it conflicts with a provision in the Partnership Act of 1932.

The principles of contract law concerning capacity to contract, offer and acceptance, among other aspects, are also relevant to partnerships. However, when it comes to the legal status of minors in partnerships, the rules specified in the Partnership Act of 1932 take precedence. This is because Section 30 of the Partnership Act addresses the legal standing of minors in the context of partnerships.

Key Requirements for a Partnership

  1. Involvement of Two or More Persons: In a partnership the participation of two or more individuals is necessary.
  2. Existence of a Formal Agreement: Partners must have a clear and formal agreement outlining the terms and conditions of their partnership.
  3. Lawful Business Activity: The partnership must engage in a lawful business undertaking or commercial activity.
  4. Profit Motive: The primary objective of the partnership must be to generate profits, which are shared among the partners.
  5. Mutual Agency: The agreement should specify that the partners will jointly carry out the business or authorize any of them to act on behalf of all, establishing mutual agency.

Examples:

  1. A and B jointly purchase 100 tons of oil with the intention of selling it for their shared proficts. This arrangement qualifies as a partnership, and A and B are recognized as partners.
  2. A and B jointly acquire 100 tons of oil but agree to distribute it between themselves without any intention of conducting business together. This does not constitute a partnership, as their aim was not to engage in business activities.

Section 3: Continuation of the Indian Contract Act: Provisions in Relation to the Indian Partnership Act. Subject to any inconsistency with the specific provisions of this Act, the provisions of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, which have not been repealed, shall remain applicable to partnership firms.

Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, is a fundamental provision that defines the term "partnership." This section lays down the essential elements that constitute a partnership under Indian law. Here is a note on Section 4:

  • Definition of Partnership: Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act defines a partnership as "the relation between persons who have agreed to share profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all." This definition highlights several key aspects:

  1. Relational Aspect: Partnership is fundamentally a relationship. It exists not only between the partners and the business but also between the partners themselves. It emphasizes the importance of mutual consent and agreement among individuals.
  2. Sharing of Profits: The sharing of profits is a distinguishing feature of a partnership. This sharing can be in the form of a predetermined ratio or based on an agreement among the partners.
  3. Collective Business Activity: Partnership involves the conduct of a business. This means that the individuals involved must engage in some form of economic activity with the common goal of generating profits.
  4. Mutual Agency: One of the significant implications of a partnership is that each partner can act on behalf of the partnership and bind it in transactions related to the ordinary course of business.
  • Requirement of Agreement: The definition underscores the importance of an agreement between individuals as the foundation of a partnership. This agreement can be oral or written but must clearly specify the intention to form a partnership and share profits from the business.
  • Legal Entity: A partnership is not a separate legal entity distinct from its members, unlike a corporation. Instead, it is a group of individuals who come together for a common business purpose. Therefore, the partnership itself cannot sue or be sued; the partners are personally liable for the partnership's obligations.
  • Flexibility: Partnership is a flexible form of business organization. It allows for easy formation and dissolution, making it suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises where partners can contribute their skills, capital, and resources.
  • Implications for Partners: Partners in a partnership have certain rights and responsibilities, including the duty to act in good faith and in the best interests of the partnership. They are also jointly and severally liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership.
  • Registration: While registration is not mandatory for the existence of a partnership, it is advisable. Registered partnerships enjoy certain legal advantages, such as the ability to sue and be sued in the firm's name, and they provide clarity regarding the rights and liabilities of the partners.

In summary, Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act defines a partnership as a relationship between individuals who agree to share profits from a collective business activity. This definition emphasizes mutual consent, sharing of profits, and collective business engagement as essential elements of a partnership. Partnerships offer flexibility and are governed by the agreement between the partners, making them a popular choice for various businesses in India.

Section 5 - Partnership at Will

  1. Definition of Partnership at Will: A partnership at will, as defined in Section 5, is a partnership in which there is no fixed term or specific duration prescribed for the existence of the partnership. In other words, it continues for an indefinite period until one of the partners decides to dissolve it.
  2. Default Rule: Unless there is a specific agreement among the partners regarding the duration or termination of the partnership, a partnership is deemed to be a partnership at will. This means that if the partners have not expressly agreed on the partnership's duration, it is considered open-ended.
  3. Dissolution by Any Partner: One of the most significant characteristics of a partnership at will, as per Section 5, is that any partner has the right to dissolve the partnership at any time by giving notice to the other partners. This notice effectively ends the partnership.
  4. No Requirement for a Reason: In a partnership at will, a partner does not need to provide a specific reason for wishing to dissolve the partnership. The mere desire to withdraw from the partnership is sufficient grounds for dissolution.
  5. Legal Consequences of Dissolution: Upon the dissolution of a partnership at will, the partnership's assets are liquidated, and the profits or losses are distributed among the partners according to their agreed-upon ratios or, in the absence of an agreement, equally.

Section 6 - Mode of Determining Existence of Partnership

  1. Notice Requirements: Section 6 of the Partnership Act specifies that a partner desiring to dissolve the partnership must provide notice to the other partners, formally communicating their intention to withdraw. The notice period may be as specified in the partnership agreement or, if not specified, a "reasonable" notice period.
  2. Flexibility and Ease of Termination: Partnerships at will are preferred in situations where the partners want flexibility and ease of dissolution. This form of partnership allows partners to enter into the business without the long-term commitment typically associated with fixed-term partnerships.
  3. Impact on Third Parties: It's essential to note that while a partner may decide to dissolve the partnership at will, this decision might have implications for third parties dealing with the partnership. Third parties are generally not bound by the internal arrangements among partners. However, they may need to be informed of the dissolution for legal clarity.
  4. Documentation: Even in a partnership at will, it is advisable for partners to have a clear, written partnership agreement that outlines the terms of the partnership, including capital contributions, profit-sharing ratios, and the procedure for dissolution. Such documentation can help prevent disputes in case of dissolution.

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The establishment of mutual relations among the partners within a firm is initiated through a contractual agreement among them. This agreement leads to the emergence of mutual obligations and entitlements among the partners. Sections 9 to 17 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, delineate the regulations that govern these mutual relationships among partners. Additionally, the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, furnishes provisions to regulate their relationships amongst themselves, and these provisions apply in the absence of a specific partnership deed. Initially, let's delve into the duties of partners as outlined by the Indian Partnership Act. These sections establish the framework for how partners should interact, cooperate, and conduct themselves in the partnership. Here are some key notes on these sections:

  1. Section 9 - Determining Mutual Rights and Duties: Section 9 lays the foundation by stating that the mutual rights and duties of partners are determined by the partnership agreement. If the agreement is silent on specific matters, the provisions of the Act will apply.
  2. Section 10 - Rules for Conduct of Partnership: This section specifies that partners must act with utmost good faith and honesty in the conduct and management of the partnership's affairs. They are obligated to provide full information on all matters affecting the partnership.
  3. Section 11 - Duty to Act Only for the Firm: Partners are bound to act solely for the benefit of the partnership. Any personal gains or competing interests must be disclosed and accounted for.
  4. Section 12 - Duty Not to Compete: Partners cannot engage in any business or activity that competes with the partnership business unless otherwise agreed upon in the partnership deed.
  5. Section 13 - Duty to Account for Personal Profits: If a partner derives any personal profits from the partnership business or uses partnership property, name, or business opportunities for personal gain, they must account for and repay those profits to the partnership.
  6. Section 14 - Right to Inspect Books and Records: Partners have the right to access and inspect the books and records of the partnership. Transparency and access to financial information are crucial for maintaining trust among partners.
  7. Section 15 - Duty Not to Expel Any Partner: Unless the partnership agreement expressly permits, no partner can be expelled from the firm. This provision ensures stability and fairness among partners.
  8. Section 16 - Rights of Partners in Management: All partners have an equal right to participate in the management and conduct of the partnership's affairs. Decisions on ordinary matters require a majority vote, while decisions on fundamental matters require the consent of all partners.
  9. Section 17 - Compensation for Extra Work: Partners who perform extra work or undertake additional responsibilities for the partnership are entitled to receive reasonable compensation for their efforts.

Flexibility and Importance of Partnership Deed: While these sections provide a framework, the partnership deed allows partners to customize the rules governing their mutual rights and duties. A well-drafted partnership deed can help avoid disputes and clarify each partner's role and responsibilities.

Partnership Act vs. Partnership Deed: In the absence of a specific provision in the partnership deed, the Indian Partnership Act provisions will apply. Therefore, it is crucial for partners to draft a comprehensive partnership agreement that covers all essential aspects of their partnership.

Section 30 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 - Registration of Firms

Section 30 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, deals with the registration of partnership firms. Here are some key notes on Section 30:

  1. Mandatory Registration: Section 30 makes it mandatory for firms to register if they wish to avail certain legal benefits and protections. While registration is not essential for the existence of a partnership, it offers advantages, making it advisable for most firms.
  2. Voluntary vs. Compulsory Registration: Registration can be either voluntary or compulsory. If a firm chooses to register, it is considered a voluntary registration. However, certain circumstances may compel a firm to register, making it a compulsory registration.
  3. Voluntary Registration: Firms can voluntarily register at any time during their existence. Voluntary registration allows the firm to access certain legal benefits, such as the ability to sue or be sued in the firm's name.
  4. Compulsory Registration: In some cases, firms are compelled to register, such as when they want to file a lawsuit against a third party. Without registration, a firm cannot bring a legal action in its name.
  5. Effects of Registration: Registration results in the creation of a register of firms maintained by the Registrar of Firms. A Certificate of Registration is issued, which serves as evidence of the firm's existence and the particulars mentioned in the registration certificate.
  6. Particulars Required for Registration: To register a firm, certain particulars must be furnished, including the firm's name, place of business, names of partners, date of joining of partners, and duration of the partnership if fixed.
  7. Public Record: Once registered, the firm's details become a matter of public record. This transparency is beneficial for third parties dealing with the firm.
  8. Liability of Partners: Registration does not affect the personal liability of the partners. Each partner remains personally liable for the firm's debts and obligations.
  9. Advantages of Registration: Registration brings several advantages, such as the ability to sue and be sued in the firm's name, the ability to seek legal remedies, and greater transparency for business dealings.
  10. Consequences of Non-Registration: Firms that do not register miss out on these legal benefits, and their ability to enforce their rights through the legal system may be restricted.
  11. Duty to Update Information: Registered firms have a duty to update the Registrar of Firms about any changes in their particulars, such as a change in partners or the firm's address.

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Section 37 - Rights of Unregistered Firm: 

Section 37 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, pertains to the rights of unregistered firms. It outlines the legal standing and limitations of firms that have not undergone the process of registration. Here are some key notes on Section 37:

  • Unregistered Firm Defined: An unregistered firm refers to a partnership or association of persons engaged in business activities without being formally registered under the Indian Partnership Act.
  • Legal Existence: Section 37 recognizes the legal existence of unregistered firms. It explicitly states that an unregistered firm can sue or be sued in its name.
  • Limitations on Unregistered Firms: While unregistered firms have the legal standing to initiate legal actions, they face certain limitations compared to registered firms:

a. Cannot Claim Set-Off: An unregistered firm cannot claim a set-off (a legal counterclaim) in a dispute against a third party. In other words, it cannot assert its own claims against claims made by others.

b. Cannot Enforce Rights: Unregistered firms are unable to enforce any rights arising from a contract or claim in a court of law against a third party. This limitation aims to encourage firms to register for better legal protection.

  • Protection of Third Parties: Section 37 primarily aims to protect the rights of third parties (individuals or entities) that engage in transactions or disputes with unregistered firms. Third parties need assurance that they can pursue their claims against such firms.
  • Encouragement to Register: The restrictions placed on unregistered firms are intended to encourage them to register. Registration provides legal benefits and protections, such as the ability to claim set-offs and enforce contractual rights, which unregistered firms do not enjoy.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Registration not only benefits the firm but also enhances transparency in business dealings. Third parties are more likely to trust and engage with registered firms, knowing they have legal standing and can be held accountable in court.
  • Choice to Register: Section 37 preserves the freedom of firms to choose whether to register or not. While registration offers legal advantages, some firms may prefer not to undergo the registration process due to various reasons.

Section 40 - Dissolution of a Firm

Section 40 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, deals with the dissolution of a partnership firm. It outlines the various circumstances and methods through which a partnership may be dissolved. Here are some key notes on Section 40:

  • Modes of Dissolution: Section 40 identifies several modes of dissolution, including:

a. Dissolution by Agreement: The partners may mutually agree to dissolve the partnership. This could be due to various reasons, such as achieving the objectives of the partnership, changes in the business environment, or disputes among partners.

b. Compulsory Dissolution: The court may order the dissolution of a partnership under certain circumstances, such as incapacity of a partner, misconduct, or if the business becomes illegal.

c. Dissolution on the Happening of Certain Events: The partnership may dissolve upon the occurrence of specific events mentioned in the partnership agreement or as required by law.

d. Dissolution by Notice: In a partnership at will (where the partnership agreement does not specify a fixed term), any partner can dissolve the partnership by giving notice to the other partners.

e. Dissolution by the Court: The court may dissolve a partnership if it deems it just and equitable to do so, often in cases of irreparable disputes among partners.

  • Effects of Dissolution: Section 40 also outlines the effects of dissolution, including:

a. Cessation of Business: Upon dissolution, the firm's business activities come to an end.

b. Settlement of Accounts: The partners are required to settle the accounts of the firm, including the realization of assets, payment of liabilities, and the distribution of the remaining assets among the partners.

c. Liability Continues: The liability of the partners continues even after dissolution until all obligations are settled. Creditors have a claim against the assets of the firm.

  • Notice of Dissolution: It is essential to give public notice of the dissolution to inform third parties of the change in the partnership's status. This helps protect the rights and interests of third parties dealing with the firm.
  • Mutual Rights and Duties Continue: Until the final settlement of accounts, the mutual rights and duties of the partners, including their duty of good faith and fair dealing, continue.
  • Dissolution vs. Winding Up: Dissolution is the first step in the process, followed by the winding-up of the firm's affairs, which includes the settlement of accounts and distribution of assets.
  • Distribution of Assets: After paying off the firm's debts and liabilities, the remaining assets are distributed among the partners as per their agreed-upon shares or, in the absence of an agreement, equally.
  • Court's Discretion: The court has discretion in cases of dissolution and may take into account various factors, including the interests of creditors and the partners, in determining the appropriate mode of dissolution.

Section 46 - Mode of Settlement of Accounts Between Partners

Section 46 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, provides guidance on the mode of settlement of accounts between partners when a partnership is dissolved. Here are some key notes on Section 46:

  1. Purpose of Section: Section 46 is primarily concerned with the distribution of the partnership assets and the allocation of profits and losses among the partners upon the dissolution of the firm.
  2. Distribution of Assets: Upon dissolution, the first step is to realize the assets of the firm, which may include cash, property, investments, and outstanding debts owed to the firm.
  3. Settlement of Liabilities: The next step is to settle the firm's liabilities, including debts, loans, and other financial obligations. Creditors' claims are paid from the partnership assets.
  4. Determination of Profit or Loss: After clearing the firm's liabilities, the remaining assets are used to determine whether there is a profit or loss. This calculation considers the total assets and liabilities.
  5. Allocation of Profits and Losses: Section 46 outlines how profits and losses are to be allocated among the partners. The allocation is typically based on the terms of the partnership agreement. If the agreement is silent on this matter, profits and losses are shared equally among the partners.
  6. Creditors' Claims: Partners must ensure that creditors are paid before the distribution of profits among themselves. It is essential to prioritize settling external debts to protect the interests of creditors.
  7. Equal Distribution: In the absence of an agreement specifying profit-sharing ratios, Section 46 provides for equal distribution of profits and losses among the partners. This promotes fairness and equality.
  8. Adjustment for Loans and Advances: Partners who have given loans or advances to the partnership may receive interest on their advances before the profits are distributed. However, this interest cannot exceed the rate agreed upon or prescribed by law.
  9. Capital Accounts: Partners' capital accounts are adjusted to reflect the distribution of profits or losses. Each partner's capital account should accurately reflect their share of the partnership's assets.
  10. Final Settlement: Once all accounts are settled, and the distribution of profits or losses is complete, partners should receive their respective shares in accordance with the agreed-upon ratios or equal distribution if no agreement exists.
  11. Protection of Partners' Interests: Section 46 helps protect the financial interests of the partners by ensuring a fair and transparent settlement of accounts during the dissolution of the partnership.

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Section 58 - Agreements in Restraint of Trade

Section 58 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, deals with agreements that impose restraints on partners from carrying on trade, business, or certain activities. Here are some key notes on Section 58:

  • Purpose of Section: Section 58 aims to regulate agreements among partners that restrict their freedom to engage in certain trade, business, or professional activities during or after the partnership's existence.
  • Restraint on Trade: The section specifically addresses agreements in restraint of trade. Such agreements typically limit a partner's ability to compete with the partnership business or engage in similar activities that may be in competition with the partnership.
  • Types of Restraints: Section 58 distinguishes between two types of restraints:
  1. During Partnership: Agreements that restrain partners from carrying on certain activities during the partnership's existence.
  2. After Partnership: Agreements that impose restraints on partners even after the dissolution of the partnership.
  • Reasonable Restrictions: The section allows for reasonable restraints on trade. However, any agreement that unreasonably restricts a partner's freedom to carry on trade or profession is considered void.
  • Factors for Reasonableness: Whether a restraint is reasonable or not depends on various factors, including the nature of the business, the scope of the restraint, the duration of the restraint, and the geographical area covered by the restraint.
  • Public Policy Considerations: Agreements that are in direct contravention of public policy are void and unenforceable. Restraints that excessively limit competition or harm the public interest are generally considered against public policy.
  • Protection of Partners' Interests: While partners have the freedom to enter into agreements that protect the legitimate interests of the partnership, these agreements must be balanced and not unfairly restrict a partner's ability to earn a livelihood.
  • Exception for Goodwill: The section provides an exception for restraints on partners from carrying on a business similar to the partnership business within a specified local limit. However, this restriction cannot exceed the area where the business was carried on, and it must be limited to a reasonable time.
  • No Restraint on Access to Court: Agreements in restraint of trade should not prevent a partner from seeking legal remedies or accessing the courts in case of disputes or grievances.
  • Void vs. Valid Agreements: Agreements that are reasonable and protect the legitimate interests of the partnership are considered valid. In contrast, agreements that go beyond reasonable restrictions and violate public policy are void and unenforceable.

Section 69 - Rights of Outgoing Partner to Carry on Competing Business

Section 69 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, focuses on the rights of an outgoing partner to engage in a competing business after leaving the partnership. Here are some key notes on Section 69:

  • Purpose of Section: Section 69 addresses the circumstances under which an outgoing partner can carry on a business that competes with the partnership business after leaving the partnership.
  • Competing Business: This section deals with situations where the outgoing partner intends to start a business that is similar or competitive with the partnership's business.
  • Conditions for Competition: An outgoing partner can engage in a competing business under the following conditions:
  1. With Consent: The outgoing partner must obtain the consent of the other partners or the partnership, either expressly or by implication, to carry on a competing business.
  2. After Notice: If the partnership agreement is silent on the matter, the outgoing partner can start a competing business if they provide notice of their intention to do so. The notice should be given after the partnership's dissolution and within a reasonable time frame.
  • Implied Consent: Implied consent can be inferred from the circumstances and actions of the partners. If the remaining partners do not object to the outgoing partner's competing business within a reasonable time after receiving notice, it can be considered implied consent.
  • Rights and Obligations: An outgoing partner who meets the conditions outlined in Section 69 has the right to carry on a competing business. However, they also have the obligation to account for any profits derived from the competing business and compensate the partnership for any losses resulting from competition.
  • Duration of Competition: Section 69 does not specify a fixed duration for the outgoing partner's ability to compete. The right to compete continues as long as the specified conditions are met.
  • Protection of Partnership Interests: This section balances the interests of the outgoing partner with the protection of the partnership's business. It allows the outgoing partner to pursue their livelihood while ensuring that the partnership is not unfairly harmed by competition.
  • No Agreement, No Notice: If there is no agreement among the partners regarding competition, and the outgoing partner does not provide notice of their intention to compete, they may be subject to legal restrictions on competition based on common law principles.

Section 72 - Sale of Goodwill After Dissolution

Section 72 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, addresses the sale of goodwill of a dissolved partnership firm. Here are some key notes on Section 72:

  1. Purpose of Section: Section 72 pertains to the disposition of the goodwill of a dissolved partnership. Goodwill refers to the intangible asset of the firm's reputation, customer base, and brand value.
  2. Definition of Goodwill: Goodwill is the positive reputation and value that a business has built over time. It includes factors like customer loyalty, brand recognition, and the firm's overall standing in the market.
  3. Sale of Goodwill: When a partnership is dissolved, the partners may decide to sell the firm's goodwill as part of the winding-up process. This can involve selling it to an incoming partner or to a third party.
  4. Valuation of Goodwill: The value of goodwill is determined based on factors such as the firm's past performance, reputation, location, and customer base. The partners may agree on the valuation, or it may be assessed by an independent expert.
  5. Rights of Outgoing Partners: Outgoing partners have a right to a share of the goodwill's sale proceeds, as it represents an asset of the firm. The distribution of these proceeds is typically governed by the partnership agreement.
  6. Distribution of Proceeds: The proceeds from the sale of goodwill are distributed among the partners according to their respective shares, as specified in the partnership agreement. If the agreement is silent, the distribution is typically based on the partners' capital contributions.
  7. Debt Settlement: Before distributing the proceeds from the sale of goodwill, the partnership's debts and liabilities are settled to ensure that creditors are paid first.
  8. Legal Protection: Section 72 provides legal protection for the rights of outgoing partners in the distribution of goodwill proceeds, ensuring that they receive their rightful share.
  9. Consent of All Partners: In many cases, the sale of goodwill requires the consent of all partners, as it involves the disposal of a significant partnership asset.
  10. Impact on New Partners: If the goodwill is sold to an incoming partner, they may benefit from the established reputation and customer base, which can be advantageous for the continuity and success of the business.
  11. Impact on Third Parties: If the goodwill is sold to a third party, the new owner may leverage the established reputation and customer loyalty to continue the business or integrate it into their own operations.

Section 76 - Right of Incoming Partner to Share Profits or Losses

Section 76 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, addresses the rights and obligations of an incoming partner in a partnership firm regarding the sharing of profits and losses. Here are some key notes on Section 76:

  1. Purpose of Section: Section 76 outlines the rights and responsibilities of an incoming partner in a partnership concerning the allocation of profits and losses. It ensures clarity in profit-sharing arrangements when a new partner joins an existing partnership.
  2. Incoming Partner's Rights: When an individual becomes an incoming partner, they acquire the right to share in the profits of the partnership from the date they join the firm. This right is typically determined based on the terms of the partnership agreement or, in the absence of an agreement, as per the rules laid out in the Act.
  3. Effective Date of Profit Sharing: The effective date for profit-sharing by the incoming partner can vary. It may begin from the date the partner joins, from the beginning of the accounting period, or from any other agreed-upon date.
  4. Profit-Sharing Ratio: The partnership agreement should specify the profit-sharing ratio for the incoming partner. This ratio determines the portion of profits allocated to the incoming partner and can vary based on the agreement.
  5. Loss Sharing: Section 76 also covers the sharing of losses by the incoming partner. Like profit sharing, the partnership agreement should specify the loss-sharing ratio, which outlines how losses are distributed among the partners, including the incoming partner.
  6. Default Rules: In the absence of a specific agreement, Section 76 provides default rules for profit and loss sharing. According to these default rules, profits and losses are shared equally among the partners, including the incoming partner.
  7. Right to Access Books: Incoming partners have the right to access and inspect the partnership's books and records to verify the accuracy of profit and loss calculations.
  8. Importance of Clarity: Clarity in profit and loss sharing arrangements is crucial to avoid disputes and misunderstandings among partners. The partnership agreement should clearly define the terms, ratios, and effective dates for profit and loss sharing.
  9. Alignment with Partnership Agreement: The terms outlined in Section 76 can be modified by the partnership agreement. Therefore, partners have the flexibility to customize profit and loss sharing arrangements to suit their specific needs and objectives.

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Indian Partnership Act Notes for Judiciary for Mains (Download)

For state Judiciary examinations in which Indian Partnership Act is covered in Mains you need to prepare all the important topics in detail. In most Judiciary exams questions from Indian Partnership Act have a weighate of 50-60 marks with each question of 10-12 marks. While preparing for Judiciary Mains you must focus in learning all the concepts in detail, with case laws, explanations and illustration. While preparing for prelims you must ensure that you make notes for prelims and mains both. Use the button below to download notes of partnership act PDF for judiciary Mains Preparation.

In the Mains exmaination of most states you will have to write detailed answers, therefore having conceptual clarity is must.

Outline for Indian Partnership Act

Partnerships are formed through a contractual agreement and are regulated by the Partnership Act of 1932. Additionally, the Partnership Act is supplemented by the provisions of the Indian Contract Act, particularly in areas where the Partnership Act does not provide specific guidance. It's explicitly stated that any provision of the Indian Contract Act that hasn't been repealed will apply to partnerships, unless it contradicts a provision of the Partnership Act of 1932.

The principles of contract law, such as those related to the capacity to contract, offer, acceptance, and more, are also applicable to partnerships. However, when it comes to matters concerning the legal status of minors, the rules specified in the Partnership Act of 1932 take precedence. This is due to the fact that Section 30 of the Partnership Act addresses the legal position of minors within the context of partnerships.

Previous Year Questions for Practice

Mains Questions for Previous:

  1. Can a person who is not a partner in the firm be made liable for an act of the firmRefer judicial precedent and statutory provisions of Indian Partnership Act, 1932?
  2. Whether sharing of profits is conclusive evidence of partnership? Discuss in light of relevant statutory provisions of Indian Partnership Act, 1932 and relevant case laws.
  3. Discuss in brief the rights and duties of partners as between themselves under Indian Partnership Act, 1932. 
  4. Discuss the position of minor in partnership under Indian Partnership Act, 1932 with the help of relevant case law.
  5. Discuss in brief various modes of dissolution of firm under Indian Partnership Act, 1932.
  6. Discuss in brief the effects of non-registration of firm under Indian Partnership Act, 1932.
  7. (a) What is partnership by holding out? (b) B C became partners in a firm for a period of years. After 3 years, A developed intimacy with wife of B. B seeks your advice whether he can get firm dissolved before expiry of years?
  8.  Is registration of a partnership firm compulsory under Indian Partnership Act, 1932? State the effects of non-registration with help of decided cases.
  9. Discuss the ways in which a partner may cease to be a partner. What is liability for acts done after retirement by him? Will the firm be dissolved after order of adjudication of insolvency of a partner
  10.  Partnership firm is not a ‘legal entity’ or ‘person’ and has no separate and distinct existence apart’ from the partners composing it but is merely an association of individuals and the firm is only a collective name of those individuals who compose the firm. Comment.
  11. (a) What are the duties of partners(b) A, B, C and D are partners in a firm X.A without the consent of B, C and D transferred his interest .in the firm to P. What are the rights of P against B, C and D.
  12. (a). What is ‘express authority’? Discuss the statutory restrictions on implied authority of a partner. (b). One of the partners in a firm committed an act of breach of contract by bribing a clerk of a rival businessman. The other partner was not aware of it. Can the other partner be held liable for this act? 
  13. ”Sharing of profits is only a prima facie evidence of the existence of Partnership while conclusive test is that of mutual agency.” Comment. (a) “Partners are bound to carry on a business of the firm, to the greatest common advantage to be just and faithful to each other and to render true accounts and full information of all things affecting the firm or any partner or his legal representation.” Discuss the above duties vis-a-vis rights in partnership firms .

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Prelims Questions for Practice:

1. Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. Does it mean that losses are not shared:

  1. A minor may be admitted in partnership, only for the profits, but he cannot share in losses.
  2. It also depends on the partnership agreement. A person may share the profits but may not share in losses.
  3. Sharing of profits also include losses (negative profits)
  4. All of the above.

2. Where no provision is made by contract between the partners for the duration of their partnership, or for the determination of their partnership, the partnership is called as:

  1. Particular partnership
  2. Partnership for a fixed term
  3. partnership at will
  4. None of the above

3. Who can inspect the Register and filed documents at the office of the Registrar:

  1. Any Government servant
  2. The Partners of the firm
  3. The partners of the other firms
  4. Any person

4. The dissolution of partnership means:

  1. It means the dissolution of partnership between all the partners of a firm
  2. It means the change in the relations of the partners
  3. It means the reconstitution of the firm.
  4. None of the above

5. After a partner’s death the business is continued in the old firm name. Whether the legal heirs of the deceased partner are liable for any acts of the firm:

  1. The continued use of the name or of the deceased partner’s name as a part thereof shall not of itself make his legal representative or his estate liable for any act of the firm done after his death.
  2. If the estate of the deceased person’s property is insufficient to make good, the personal assets of the legal heirs will be liable for any of the acts done by the firm.
  3. The estate of the deceased person is liable for any of the act done by the firm.
  4. The legal heirs of the deceased partners shall be liable for any of the act done by the firm after the demise of the partner.

6. Whether a notice given to a partner, who habitually acts in the business of the firm of any matter relating to the affairs of the firm, will be deemed as notice to the firm:

  1. It will deemed as personal information to that partner
  2. Yes, it operates as notice to the firm, except in the case of a fraud on the firm committed by or with the consent of that partner
  3. It depends on the nature of the concerned partner whether he inform so to other partners
  4. No, it will not deemed as notice to the firm.

7. When there is any change in the constitution of the firm, what would be the statue of the continuing guarantee given to the firm:

  1. It shall be revoked as to future transactions from the date of any change in the constitution of the firm.
  2. Since it is the continuing guarantee, hence it be continuing.
  3. Only the parties to the continuing guarantee can only decide over the matter.
  4. None of the above.

8. Where a partner wilfully or persistently commits breach of agreements relating to the management of the affairs of the firm or the conduct of its business, or otherwise so conducts himself in matters relating to the business that it is not reasonably practicable for the other partners to carry on the business in partnership with him. The other partner(s) may:

  1. The partnership firm comes to an end automatically
  2. The other partners may decide to leave the firm.
  3. File a suit in the court for the dissolution of the firm.
  4. The other partners may decide to expel the concerned partner

9. The State Government may appoint Registrars of Firms for the purposes of this Act, every Registrar shall be deemed:

  1. To be a Central Government Servant.
  2. To be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code
  3. To be State Government Servant
  4. To be a private servant.

10. What type of agreement is used to form a partnership business?

  1. Written agreement
  2. Oral agreement
  3. Written or oral agreement
  4. None of them

Books for Indian Partnership Act

For your overall preparation of Indian Partnership Act you have to keep Bare Act are the major source. 

List of reference books for your preparation:

Books Author

Law of Partnership (In Nutshell)

Avtar Singh

Law of partnership

Dr. Snajeev Kumar

Textbook on Indian Partnership Act with Limited Liability Partnership Act

Dr. Madhusudan Saharay

List of practice books for Indian Partnership Act:

Books Author

Questions And Answers: Indian Partnership Act And Sale Of Goods Act 

 Samarth Agarwal Books 

Multiple Choice Questions on Law of Contract

Legis Orbis's Multiple Choice Questions Books

Conclusion:

Here are the key takeaways from this article for your overall preparation:

  • Indian Partnership Act is important for 6-8 state judiciary exams. If the state you are targetting has Indian Partnership Act in it's syllabus than you can refer to this article for the preparation.
  • Keep a note of all the important sections and focus on them.
  • Make Notes from day one, prepare for mains and prelims together.
  • For prelims ensure that you memorize all the important section numbers.
  • For mains understand all the concepts and make notes, because you will have to write mains answers.

All the best to all the Judiciary Aspirants.

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Partnership Act Notes and Study Material For Judiciary Preparation 2024

Author : Yogricha

June 7, 2024

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Overview: Indian Partnership Act 1932 forms an important part in many State Judiciary examinations. It is not a major subject that is asked in all state judiciary exams, however Judiciary exam of Delhi, Gujarat, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, etc. include Indian Partnership Act.

We will be covering all important sections that have been asked previously in several State Judiciary Exams. This article includes all the key details that you need for your comprehensive preparation. Take a not of all the important topics, mark it in you bare act when you start your preparation. You can also download notes of partnership act PDF for judiciary Preparation from this article. 

In this article we will cover:

Overview of Indian Partnership Act 1932
Important sections 
Indian Partnership Act Notes for Judiciary for Prelims
Indian Partnership Act Mains centric Notes
Previous Year Questions for practice
Books for Indian Partnership Act

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Overview of Indian Partnership Act 1932

Indian Partnership Act is asked in the following State Judiciary exams:

  • Bihar Judiciary
  • Uttar Pradesh Judiciary
  • Gujarat Judiciary
  • Delhi Judiciary
  • Haryana Judiciary
  • Punjab Judiciary
  • Tamil Nadu Judiciary

In Bihar Judiciary and Gujarat Judiciary examination, Indian Partnership Act is asked in the Mains examination, and for other states it is asked in Prelims and Mains both. The aggregate weightage of Indian Partnership Act in all states Judiciary exams is 3-5% in Prelims and in Mains

Important sections from Indian Partnership Act for Judiciary preparation

  1. Section 4 - Definition of "Partnership": This section defines a partnership as the relation between persons who have agreed to share profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.
  2. Section 5 - Partnership at Will: Section 5 specifies that in the absence of a specific agreement, a partnership is considered a partnership at will, which can be dissolved by any partner giving notice to the other partners.
  3. Section 6 - Mode of Determining Existence of Partnership: Section 6 provides criteria for determining whether a group of persons is a partnership, considering factors like sharing profits, ownership of property, and involvement in business management.
  4. Section 8 - Rights and Duties of Partners: This section outlines the rights and duties of partners, including the right to take part in the business, the duty to act in good faith, and the duty to indemnify for losses.
  5. Section 11 - Implied Authority of a Partner: Section 11 discusses the implied authority of a partner to bind the firm to certain obligations and transactions.
  6. Section 12 - Partners Bound by Acts on Behalf of the Firm: Section 12 states that any act done by a partner in the ordinary course of business binds the firm.
  7. Section 16 - Continuing Authority of Partners for Purposes of Winding Up: This section addresses the authority of partners to bind the firm even after dissolution for the purpose of winding up the partnership affairs.
  8. Section 30 - Registration of Firms: Section 30 mandates the registration of firms and outlines the advantages and consequences of registration.
  9. Section 37 - Rights of Unregistered Firm: This section discusses the rights and liabilities of unregistered firms in legal proceedings.
  10. Section 40 - Dissolution of a Firm: Section 40 outlines the various modes of dissolution of a partnership firm, including dissolution by agreement, compulsory dissolution by the court, and dissolution due to insolvency or death of a partner.
  11. Section 46 - Mode of Settlement of Accounts Between Partners: This section specifies the rules for settling accounts between partners upon dissolution, including the order of payment of debts and distribution of surplus.
  12. Section 58 - Agreements in Restraint of Trade: Section 58 deals with agreements among partners that restrict a partner from carrying on competing businesses after the dissolution of the firm.
  13. Section 69 - Rights of Outgoing Partner to Carry on Competing Business: This section outlines the rights of an outgoing partner to carry on a competing business after retirement, subject to certain conditions.
  14. Section 72 - Sale of Goodwill After Dissolution: Section 72 allows the sale of the goodwill of the firm after dissolution, with the consent of all the partners.
  15. Section 76 - Right of Incoming Partner to Share Profits or Losses: This section discusses the rights of an incoming partner to share profits or losses from the date of joining the firm.

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Indian Partnership Act Notes for Judiciary for Prelims

These are short notes for your Judiciary Prelims Preparation, you must focus on the section number, key elements, explanations and expections. In this section we will discuss all the important sections and their explanations for your preparation.

Introduction to Indian Partnership Act for Judiciary:

The act provides a comprehensive legal framework for governing partnerships and regulating the rights and obligations of partners in India. Partnerships arise from a contractual agreement and are regulated by the Partnership Act of 1932. Additionally, the final provisions of the Indian Contract Act are applicable to partnerships in areas where the Partnership Act does not provide specific guidance. It is explicitly stated that any provision of the Indian Contract Act that has not been repealed will apply to partnerships, unless it conflicts with a provision in the Partnership Act of 1932.

The principles of contract law concerning capacity to contract, offer and acceptance, among other aspects, are also relevant to partnerships. However, when it comes to the legal status of minors in partnerships, the rules specified in the Partnership Act of 1932 take precedence. This is because Section 30 of the Partnership Act addresses the legal standing of minors in the context of partnerships.

Key Requirements for a Partnership

  1. Involvement of Two or More Persons: In a partnership the participation of two or more individuals is necessary.
  2. Existence of a Formal Agreement: Partners must have a clear and formal agreement outlining the terms and conditions of their partnership.
  3. Lawful Business Activity: The partnership must engage in a lawful business undertaking or commercial activity.
  4. Profit Motive: The primary objective of the partnership must be to generate profits, which are shared among the partners.
  5. Mutual Agency: The agreement should specify that the partners will jointly carry out the business or authorize any of them to act on behalf of all, establishing mutual agency.

Examples:

  1. A and B jointly purchase 100 tons of oil with the intention of selling it for their shared proficts. This arrangement qualifies as a partnership, and A and B are recognized as partners.
  2. A and B jointly acquire 100 tons of oil but agree to distribute it between themselves without any intention of conducting business together. This does not constitute a partnership, as their aim was not to engage in business activities.

Section 3: Continuation of the Indian Contract Act: Provisions in Relation to the Indian Partnership Act. Subject to any inconsistency with the specific provisions of this Act, the provisions of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, which have not been repealed, shall remain applicable to partnership firms.

Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, is a fundamental provision that defines the term "partnership." This section lays down the essential elements that constitute a partnership under Indian law. Here is a note on Section 4:

  • Definition of Partnership: Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act defines a partnership as "the relation between persons who have agreed to share profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all." This definition highlights several key aspects:

  1. Relational Aspect: Partnership is fundamentally a relationship. It exists not only between the partners and the business but also between the partners themselves. It emphasizes the importance of mutual consent and agreement among individuals.
  2. Sharing of Profits: The sharing of profits is a distinguishing feature of a partnership. This sharing can be in the form of a predetermined ratio or based on an agreement among the partners.
  3. Collective Business Activity: Partnership involves the conduct of a business. This means that the individuals involved must engage in some form of economic activity with the common goal of generating profits.
  4. Mutual Agency: One of the significant implications of a partnership is that each partner can act on behalf of the partnership and bind it in transactions related to the ordinary course of business.
  • Requirement of Agreement: The definition underscores the importance of an agreement between individuals as the foundation of a partnership. This agreement can be oral or written but must clearly specify the intention to form a partnership and share profits from the business.
  • Legal Entity: A partnership is not a separate legal entity distinct from its members, unlike a corporation. Instead, it is a group of individuals who come together for a common business purpose. Therefore, the partnership itself cannot sue or be sued; the partners are personally liable for the partnership's obligations.
  • Flexibility: Partnership is a flexible form of business organization. It allows for easy formation and dissolution, making it suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises where partners can contribute their skills, capital, and resources.
  • Implications for Partners: Partners in a partnership have certain rights and responsibilities, including the duty to act in good faith and in the best interests of the partnership. They are also jointly and severally liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership.
  • Registration: While registration is not mandatory for the existence of a partnership, it is advisable. Registered partnerships enjoy certain legal advantages, such as the ability to sue and be sued in the firm's name, and they provide clarity regarding the rights and liabilities of the partners.

In summary, Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act defines a partnership as a relationship between individuals who agree to share profits from a collective business activity. This definition emphasizes mutual consent, sharing of profits, and collective business engagement as essential elements of a partnership. Partnerships offer flexibility and are governed by the agreement between the partners, making them a popular choice for various businesses in India.

Section 5 - Partnership at Will

  1. Definition of Partnership at Will: A partnership at will, as defined in Section 5, is a partnership in which there is no fixed term or specific duration prescribed for the existence of the partnership. In other words, it continues for an indefinite period until one of the partners decides to dissolve it.
  2. Default Rule: Unless there is a specific agreement among the partners regarding the duration or termination of the partnership, a partnership is deemed to be a partnership at will. This means that if the partners have not expressly agreed on the partnership's duration, it is considered open-ended.
  3. Dissolution by Any Partner: One of the most significant characteristics of a partnership at will, as per Section 5, is that any partner has the right to dissolve the partnership at any time by giving notice to the other partners. This notice effectively ends the partnership.
  4. No Requirement for a Reason: In a partnership at will, a partner does not need to provide a specific reason for wishing to dissolve the partnership. The mere desire to withdraw from the partnership is sufficient grounds for dissolution.
  5. Legal Consequences of Dissolution: Upon the dissolution of a partnership at will, the partnership's assets are liquidated, and the profits or losses are distributed among the partners according to their agreed-upon ratios or, in the absence of an agreement, equally.

Section 6 - Mode of Determining Existence of Partnership

  1. Notice Requirements: Section 6 of the Partnership Act specifies that a partner desiring to dissolve the partnership must provide notice to the other partners, formally communicating their intention to withdraw. The notice period may be as specified in the partnership agreement or, if not specified, a "reasonable" notice period.
  2. Flexibility and Ease of Termination: Partnerships at will are preferred in situations where the partners want flexibility and ease of dissolution. This form of partnership allows partners to enter into the business without the long-term commitment typically associated with fixed-term partnerships.
  3. Impact on Third Parties: It's essential to note that while a partner may decide to dissolve the partnership at will, this decision might have implications for third parties dealing with the partnership. Third parties are generally not bound by the internal arrangements among partners. However, they may need to be informed of the dissolution for legal clarity.
  4. Documentation: Even in a partnership at will, it is advisable for partners to have a clear, written partnership agreement that outlines the terms of the partnership, including capital contributions, profit-sharing ratios, and the procedure for dissolution. Such documentation can help prevent disputes in case of dissolution.

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The establishment of mutual relations among the partners within a firm is initiated through a contractual agreement among them. This agreement leads to the emergence of mutual obligations and entitlements among the partners. Sections 9 to 17 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, delineate the regulations that govern these mutual relationships among partners. Additionally, the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, furnishes provisions to regulate their relationships amongst themselves, and these provisions apply in the absence of a specific partnership deed. Initially, let's delve into the duties of partners as outlined by the Indian Partnership Act. These sections establish the framework for how partners should interact, cooperate, and conduct themselves in the partnership. Here are some key notes on these sections:

  1. Section 9 - Determining Mutual Rights and Duties: Section 9 lays the foundation by stating that the mutual rights and duties of partners are determined by the partnership agreement. If the agreement is silent on specific matters, the provisions of the Act will apply.
  2. Section 10 - Rules for Conduct of Partnership: This section specifies that partners must act with utmost good faith and honesty in the conduct and management of the partnership's affairs. They are obligated to provide full information on all matters affecting the partnership.
  3. Section 11 - Duty to Act Only for the Firm: Partners are bound to act solely for the benefit of the partnership. Any personal gains or competing interests must be disclosed and accounted for.
  4. Section 12 - Duty Not to Compete: Partners cannot engage in any business or activity that competes with the partnership business unless otherwise agreed upon in the partnership deed.
  5. Section 13 - Duty to Account for Personal Profits: If a partner derives any personal profits from the partnership business or uses partnership property, name, or business opportunities for personal gain, they must account for and repay those profits to the partnership.
  6. Section 14 - Right to Inspect Books and Records: Partners have the right to access and inspect the books and records of the partnership. Transparency and access to financial information are crucial for maintaining trust among partners.
  7. Section 15 - Duty Not to Expel Any Partner: Unless the partnership agreement expressly permits, no partner can be expelled from the firm. This provision ensures stability and fairness among partners.
  8. Section 16 - Rights of Partners in Management: All partners have an equal right to participate in the management and conduct of the partnership's affairs. Decisions on ordinary matters require a majority vote, while decisions on fundamental matters require the consent of all partners.
  9. Section 17 - Compensation for Extra Work: Partners who perform extra work or undertake additional responsibilities for the partnership are entitled to receive reasonable compensation for their efforts.

Flexibility and Importance of Partnership Deed: While these sections provide a framework, the partnership deed allows partners to customize the rules governing their mutual rights and duties. A well-drafted partnership deed can help avoid disputes and clarify each partner's role and responsibilities.

Partnership Act vs. Partnership Deed: In the absence of a specific provision in the partnership deed, the Indian Partnership Act provisions will apply. Therefore, it is crucial for partners to draft a comprehensive partnership agreement that covers all essential aspects of their partnership.

Section 30 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 - Registration of Firms

Section 30 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, deals with the registration of partnership firms. Here are some key notes on Section 30:

  1. Mandatory Registration: Section 30 makes it mandatory for firms to register if they wish to avail certain legal benefits and protections. While registration is not essential for the existence of a partnership, it offers advantages, making it advisable for most firms.
  2. Voluntary vs. Compulsory Registration: Registration can be either voluntary or compulsory. If a firm chooses to register, it is considered a voluntary registration. However, certain circumstances may compel a firm to register, making it a compulsory registration.
  3. Voluntary Registration: Firms can voluntarily register at any time during their existence. Voluntary registration allows the firm to access certain legal benefits, such as the ability to sue or be sued in the firm's name.
  4. Compulsory Registration: In some cases, firms are compelled to register, such as when they want to file a lawsuit against a third party. Without registration, a firm cannot bring a legal action in its name.
  5. Effects of Registration: Registration results in the creation of a register of firms maintained by the Registrar of Firms. A Certificate of Registration is issued, which serves as evidence of the firm's existence and the particulars mentioned in the registration certificate.
  6. Particulars Required for Registration: To register a firm, certain particulars must be furnished, including the firm's name, place of business, names of partners, date of joining of partners, and duration of the partnership if fixed.
  7. Public Record: Once registered, the firm's details become a matter of public record. This transparency is beneficial for third parties dealing with the firm.
  8. Liability of Partners: Registration does not affect the personal liability of the partners. Each partner remains personally liable for the firm's debts and obligations.
  9. Advantages of Registration: Registration brings several advantages, such as the ability to sue and be sued in the firm's name, the ability to seek legal remedies, and greater transparency for business dealings.
  10. Consequences of Non-Registration: Firms that do not register miss out on these legal benefits, and their ability to enforce their rights through the legal system may be restricted.
  11. Duty to Update Information: Registered firms have a duty to update the Registrar of Firms about any changes in their particulars, such as a change in partners or the firm's address.

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Section 37 - Rights of Unregistered Firm: 

Section 37 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, pertains to the rights of unregistered firms. It outlines the legal standing and limitations of firms that have not undergone the process of registration. Here are some key notes on Section 37:

  • Unregistered Firm Defined: An unregistered firm refers to a partnership or association of persons engaged in business activities without being formally registered under the Indian Partnership Act.
  • Legal Existence: Section 37 recognizes the legal existence of unregistered firms. It explicitly states that an unregistered firm can sue or be sued in its name.
  • Limitations on Unregistered Firms: While unregistered firms have the legal standing to initiate legal actions, they face certain limitations compared to registered firms:

a. Cannot Claim Set-Off: An unregistered firm cannot claim a set-off (a legal counterclaim) in a dispute against a third party. In other words, it cannot assert its own claims against claims made by others.

b. Cannot Enforce Rights: Unregistered firms are unable to enforce any rights arising from a contract or claim in a court of law against a third party. This limitation aims to encourage firms to register for better legal protection.

  • Protection of Third Parties: Section 37 primarily aims to protect the rights of third parties (individuals or entities) that engage in transactions or disputes with unregistered firms. Third parties need assurance that they can pursue their claims against such firms.
  • Encouragement to Register: The restrictions placed on unregistered firms are intended to encourage them to register. Registration provides legal benefits and protections, such as the ability to claim set-offs and enforce contractual rights, which unregistered firms do not enjoy.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Registration not only benefits the firm but also enhances transparency in business dealings. Third parties are more likely to trust and engage with registered firms, knowing they have legal standing and can be held accountable in court.
  • Choice to Register: Section 37 preserves the freedom of firms to choose whether to register or not. While registration offers legal advantages, some firms may prefer not to undergo the registration process due to various reasons.

Section 40 - Dissolution of a Firm

Section 40 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, deals with the dissolution of a partnership firm. It outlines the various circumstances and methods through which a partnership may be dissolved. Here are some key notes on Section 40:

  • Modes of Dissolution: Section 40 identifies several modes of dissolution, including:

a. Dissolution by Agreement: The partners may mutually agree to dissolve the partnership. This could be due to various reasons, such as achieving the objectives of the partnership, changes in the business environment, or disputes among partners.

b. Compulsory Dissolution: The court may order the dissolution of a partnership under certain circumstances, such as incapacity of a partner, misconduct, or if the business becomes illegal.

c. Dissolution on the Happening of Certain Events: The partnership may dissolve upon the occurrence of specific events mentioned in the partnership agreement or as required by law.

d. Dissolution by Notice: In a partnership at will (where the partnership agreement does not specify a fixed term), any partner can dissolve the partnership by giving notice to the other partners.

e. Dissolution by the Court: The court may dissolve a partnership if it deems it just and equitable to do so, often in cases of irreparable disputes among partners.

  • Effects of Dissolution: Section 40 also outlines the effects of dissolution, including:

a. Cessation of Business: Upon dissolution, the firm's business activities come to an end.

b. Settlement of Accounts: The partners are required to settle the accounts of the firm, including the realization of assets, payment of liabilities, and the distribution of the remaining assets among the partners.

c. Liability Continues: The liability of the partners continues even after dissolution until all obligations are settled. Creditors have a claim against the assets of the firm.

  • Notice of Dissolution: It is essential to give public notice of the dissolution to inform third parties of the change in the partnership's status. This helps protect the rights and interests of third parties dealing with the firm.
  • Mutual Rights and Duties Continue: Until the final settlement of accounts, the mutual rights and duties of the partners, including their duty of good faith and fair dealing, continue.
  • Dissolution vs. Winding Up: Dissolution is the first step in the process, followed by the winding-up of the firm's affairs, which includes the settlement of accounts and distribution of assets.
  • Distribution of Assets: After paying off the firm's debts and liabilities, the remaining assets are distributed among the partners as per their agreed-upon shares or, in the absence of an agreement, equally.
  • Court's Discretion: The court has discretion in cases of dissolution and may take into account various factors, including the interests of creditors and the partners, in determining the appropriate mode of dissolution.

Section 46 - Mode of Settlement of Accounts Between Partners

Section 46 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, provides guidance on the mode of settlement of accounts between partners when a partnership is dissolved. Here are some key notes on Section 46:

  1. Purpose of Section: Section 46 is primarily concerned with the distribution of the partnership assets and the allocation of profits and losses among the partners upon the dissolution of the firm.
  2. Distribution of Assets: Upon dissolution, the first step is to realize the assets of the firm, which may include cash, property, investments, and outstanding debts owed to the firm.
  3. Settlement of Liabilities: The next step is to settle the firm's liabilities, including debts, loans, and other financial obligations. Creditors' claims are paid from the partnership assets.
  4. Determination of Profit or Loss: After clearing the firm's liabilities, the remaining assets are used to determine whether there is a profit or loss. This calculation considers the total assets and liabilities.
  5. Allocation of Profits and Losses: Section 46 outlines how profits and losses are to be allocated among the partners. The allocation is typically based on the terms of the partnership agreement. If the agreement is silent on this matter, profits and losses are shared equally among the partners.
  6. Creditors' Claims: Partners must ensure that creditors are paid before the distribution of profits among themselves. It is essential to prioritize settling external debts to protect the interests of creditors.
  7. Equal Distribution: In the absence of an agreement specifying profit-sharing ratios, Section 46 provides for equal distribution of profits and losses among the partners. This promotes fairness and equality.
  8. Adjustment for Loans and Advances: Partners who have given loans or advances to the partnership may receive interest on their advances before the profits are distributed. However, this interest cannot exceed the rate agreed upon or prescribed by law.
  9. Capital Accounts: Partners' capital accounts are adjusted to reflect the distribution of profits or losses. Each partner's capital account should accurately reflect their share of the partnership's assets.
  10. Final Settlement: Once all accounts are settled, and the distribution of profits or losses is complete, partners should receive their respective shares in accordance with the agreed-upon ratios or equal distribution if no agreement exists.
  11. Protection of Partners' Interests: Section 46 helps protect the financial interests of the partners by ensuring a fair and transparent settlement of accounts during the dissolution of the partnership.

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Section 58 - Agreements in Restraint of Trade

Section 58 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, deals with agreements that impose restraints on partners from carrying on trade, business, or certain activities. Here are some key notes on Section 58:

  • Purpose of Section: Section 58 aims to regulate agreements among partners that restrict their freedom to engage in certain trade, business, or professional activities during or after the partnership's existence.
  • Restraint on Trade: The section specifically addresses agreements in restraint of trade. Such agreements typically limit a partner's ability to compete with the partnership business or engage in similar activities that may be in competition with the partnership.
  • Types of Restraints: Section 58 distinguishes between two types of restraints:
  1. During Partnership: Agreements that restrain partners from carrying on certain activities during the partnership's existence.
  2. After Partnership: Agreements that impose restraints on partners even after the dissolution of the partnership.
  • Reasonable Restrictions: The section allows for reasonable restraints on trade. However, any agreement that unreasonably restricts a partner's freedom to carry on trade or profession is considered void.
  • Factors for Reasonableness: Whether a restraint is reasonable or not depends on various factors, including the nature of the business, the scope of the restraint, the duration of the restraint, and the geographical area covered by the restraint.
  • Public Policy Considerations: Agreements that are in direct contravention of public policy are void and unenforceable. Restraints that excessively limit competition or harm the public interest are generally considered against public policy.
  • Protection of Partners' Interests: While partners have the freedom to enter into agreements that protect the legitimate interests of the partnership, these agreements must be balanced and not unfairly restrict a partner's ability to earn a livelihood.
  • Exception for Goodwill: The section provides an exception for restraints on partners from carrying on a business similar to the partnership business within a specified local limit. However, this restriction cannot exceed the area where the business was carried on, and it must be limited to a reasonable time.
  • No Restraint on Access to Court: Agreements in restraint of trade should not prevent a partner from seeking legal remedies or accessing the courts in case of disputes or grievances.
  • Void vs. Valid Agreements: Agreements that are reasonable and protect the legitimate interests of the partnership are considered valid. In contrast, agreements that go beyond reasonable restrictions and violate public policy are void and unenforceable.

Section 69 - Rights of Outgoing Partner to Carry on Competing Business

Section 69 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, focuses on the rights of an outgoing partner to engage in a competing business after leaving the partnership. Here are some key notes on Section 69:

  • Purpose of Section: Section 69 addresses the circumstances under which an outgoing partner can carry on a business that competes with the partnership business after leaving the partnership.
  • Competing Business: This section deals with situations where the outgoing partner intends to start a business that is similar or competitive with the partnership's business.
  • Conditions for Competition: An outgoing partner can engage in a competing business under the following conditions:
  1. With Consent: The outgoing partner must obtain the consent of the other partners or the partnership, either expressly or by implication, to carry on a competing business.
  2. After Notice: If the partnership agreement is silent on the matter, the outgoing partner can start a competing business if they provide notice of their intention to do so. The notice should be given after the partnership's dissolution and within a reasonable time frame.
  • Implied Consent: Implied consent can be inferred from the circumstances and actions of the partners. If the remaining partners do not object to the outgoing partner's competing business within a reasonable time after receiving notice, it can be considered implied consent.
  • Rights and Obligations: An outgoing partner who meets the conditions outlined in Section 69 has the right to carry on a competing business. However, they also have the obligation to account for any profits derived from the competing business and compensate the partnership for any losses resulting from competition.
  • Duration of Competition: Section 69 does not specify a fixed duration for the outgoing partner's ability to compete. The right to compete continues as long as the specified conditions are met.
  • Protection of Partnership Interests: This section balances the interests of the outgoing partner with the protection of the partnership's business. It allows the outgoing partner to pursue their livelihood while ensuring that the partnership is not unfairly harmed by competition.
  • No Agreement, No Notice: If there is no agreement among the partners regarding competition, and the outgoing partner does not provide notice of their intention to compete, they may be subject to legal restrictions on competition based on common law principles.

Section 72 - Sale of Goodwill After Dissolution

Section 72 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, addresses the sale of goodwill of a dissolved partnership firm. Here are some key notes on Section 72:

  1. Purpose of Section: Section 72 pertains to the disposition of the goodwill of a dissolved partnership. Goodwill refers to the intangible asset of the firm's reputation, customer base, and brand value.
  2. Definition of Goodwill: Goodwill is the positive reputation and value that a business has built over time. It includes factors like customer loyalty, brand recognition, and the firm's overall standing in the market.
  3. Sale of Goodwill: When a partnership is dissolved, the partners may decide to sell the firm's goodwill as part of the winding-up process. This can involve selling it to an incoming partner or to a third party.
  4. Valuation of Goodwill: The value of goodwill is determined based on factors such as the firm's past performance, reputation, location, and customer base. The partners may agree on the valuation, or it may be assessed by an independent expert.
  5. Rights of Outgoing Partners: Outgoing partners have a right to a share of the goodwill's sale proceeds, as it represents an asset of the firm. The distribution of these proceeds is typically governed by the partnership agreement.
  6. Distribution of Proceeds: The proceeds from the sale of goodwill are distributed among the partners according to their respective shares, as specified in the partnership agreement. If the agreement is silent, the distribution is typically based on the partners' capital contributions.
  7. Debt Settlement: Before distributing the proceeds from the sale of goodwill, the partnership's debts and liabilities are settled to ensure that creditors are paid first.
  8. Legal Protection: Section 72 provides legal protection for the rights of outgoing partners in the distribution of goodwill proceeds, ensuring that they receive their rightful share.
  9. Consent of All Partners: In many cases, the sale of goodwill requires the consent of all partners, as it involves the disposal of a significant partnership asset.
  10. Impact on New Partners: If the goodwill is sold to an incoming partner, they may benefit from the established reputation and customer base, which can be advantageous for the continuity and success of the business.
  11. Impact on Third Parties: If the goodwill is sold to a third party, the new owner may leverage the established reputation and customer loyalty to continue the business or integrate it into their own operations.

Section 76 - Right of Incoming Partner to Share Profits or Losses

Section 76 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, addresses the rights and obligations of an incoming partner in a partnership firm regarding the sharing of profits and losses. Here are some key notes on Section 76:

  1. Purpose of Section: Section 76 outlines the rights and responsibilities of an incoming partner in a partnership concerning the allocation of profits and losses. It ensures clarity in profit-sharing arrangements when a new partner joins an existing partnership.
  2. Incoming Partner's Rights: When an individual becomes an incoming partner, they acquire the right to share in the profits of the partnership from the date they join the firm. This right is typically determined based on the terms of the partnership agreement or, in the absence of an agreement, as per the rules laid out in the Act.
  3. Effective Date of Profit Sharing: The effective date for profit-sharing by the incoming partner can vary. It may begin from the date the partner joins, from the beginning of the accounting period, or from any other agreed-upon date.
  4. Profit-Sharing Ratio: The partnership agreement should specify the profit-sharing ratio for the incoming partner. This ratio determines the portion of profits allocated to the incoming partner and can vary based on the agreement.
  5. Loss Sharing: Section 76 also covers the sharing of losses by the incoming partner. Like profit sharing, the partnership agreement should specify the loss-sharing ratio, which outlines how losses are distributed among the partners, including the incoming partner.
  6. Default Rules: In the absence of a specific agreement, Section 76 provides default rules for profit and loss sharing. According to these default rules, profits and losses are shared equally among the partners, including the incoming partner.
  7. Right to Access Books: Incoming partners have the right to access and inspect the partnership's books and records to verify the accuracy of profit and loss calculations.
  8. Importance of Clarity: Clarity in profit and loss sharing arrangements is crucial to avoid disputes and misunderstandings among partners. The partnership agreement should clearly define the terms, ratios, and effective dates for profit and loss sharing.
  9. Alignment with Partnership Agreement: The terms outlined in Section 76 can be modified by the partnership agreement. Therefore, partners have the flexibility to customize profit and loss sharing arrangements to suit their specific needs and objectives.

Read About: All State Judiciary Exams and How to get selected

Indian Partnership Act Notes for Judiciary for Mains (Download)

For state Judiciary examinations in which Indian Partnership Act is covered in Mains you need to prepare all the important topics in detail. In most Judiciary exams questions from Indian Partnership Act have a weighate of 50-60 marks with each question of 10-12 marks. While preparing for Judiciary Mains you must focus in learning all the concepts in detail, with case laws, explanations and illustration. While preparing for prelims you must ensure that you make notes for prelims and mains both. Use the button below to download notes of partnership act PDF for judiciary Mains Preparation.

In the Mains exmaination of most states you will have to write detailed answers, therefore having conceptual clarity is must.

Outline for Indian Partnership Act

Partnerships are formed through a contractual agreement and are regulated by the Partnership Act of 1932. Additionally, the Partnership Act is supplemented by the provisions of the Indian Contract Act, particularly in areas where the Partnership Act does not provide specific guidance. It's explicitly stated that any provision of the Indian Contract Act that hasn't been repealed will apply to partnerships, unless it contradicts a provision of the Partnership Act of 1932.

The principles of contract law, such as those related to the capacity to contract, offer, acceptance, and more, are also applicable to partnerships. However, when it comes to matters concerning the legal status of minors, the rules specified in the Partnership Act of 1932 take precedence. This is due to the fact that Section 30 of the Partnership Act addresses the legal position of minors within the context of partnerships.

Previous Year Questions for Practice

Mains Questions for Previous:

  1. Can a person who is not a partner in the firm be made liable for an act of the firmRefer judicial precedent and statutory provisions of Indian Partnership Act, 1932?
  2. Whether sharing of profits is conclusive evidence of partnership? Discuss in light of relevant statutory provisions of Indian Partnership Act, 1932 and relevant case laws.
  3. Discuss in brief the rights and duties of partners as between themselves under Indian Partnership Act, 1932. 
  4. Discuss the position of minor in partnership under Indian Partnership Act, 1932 with the help of relevant case law.
  5. Discuss in brief various modes of dissolution of firm under Indian Partnership Act, 1932.
  6. Discuss in brief the effects of non-registration of firm under Indian Partnership Act, 1932.
  7. (a) What is partnership by holding out? (b) B C became partners in a firm for a period of years. After 3 years, A developed intimacy with wife of B. B seeks your advice whether he can get firm dissolved before expiry of years?
  8.  Is registration of a partnership firm compulsory under Indian Partnership Act, 1932? State the effects of non-registration with help of decided cases.
  9. Discuss the ways in which a partner may cease to be a partner. What is liability for acts done after retirement by him? Will the firm be dissolved after order of adjudication of insolvency of a partner
  10.  Partnership firm is not a ‘legal entity’ or ‘person’ and has no separate and distinct existence apart’ from the partners composing it but is merely an association of individuals and the firm is only a collective name of those individuals who compose the firm. Comment.
  11. (a) What are the duties of partners(b) A, B, C and D are partners in a firm X.A without the consent of B, C and D transferred his interest .in the firm to P. What are the rights of P against B, C and D.
  12. (a). What is ‘express authority’? Discuss the statutory restrictions on implied authority of a partner. (b). One of the partners in a firm committed an act of breach of contract by bribing a clerk of a rival businessman. The other partner was not aware of it. Can the other partner be held liable for this act? 
  13. ”Sharing of profits is only a prima facie evidence of the existence of Partnership while conclusive test is that of mutual agency.” Comment. (a) “Partners are bound to carry on a business of the firm, to the greatest common advantage to be just and faithful to each other and to render true accounts and full information of all things affecting the firm or any partner or his legal representation.” Discuss the above duties vis-a-vis rights in partnership firms .

Learn more: Judiciary Exam 2023 Online Coaching

Prelims Questions for Practice:

1. Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. Does it mean that losses are not shared:

  1. A minor may be admitted in partnership, only for the profits, but he cannot share in losses.
  2. It also depends on the partnership agreement. A person may share the profits but may not share in losses.
  3. Sharing of profits also include losses (negative profits)
  4. All of the above.

2. Where no provision is made by contract between the partners for the duration of their partnership, or for the determination of their partnership, the partnership is called as:

  1. Particular partnership
  2. Partnership for a fixed term
  3. partnership at will
  4. None of the above

3. Who can inspect the Register and filed documents at the office of the Registrar:

  1. Any Government servant
  2. The Partners of the firm
  3. The partners of the other firms
  4. Any person

4. The dissolution of partnership means:

  1. It means the dissolution of partnership between all the partners of a firm
  2. It means the change in the relations of the partners
  3. It means the reconstitution of the firm.
  4. None of the above

5. After a partner’s death the business is continued in the old firm name. Whether the legal heirs of the deceased partner are liable for any acts of the firm:

  1. The continued use of the name or of the deceased partner’s name as a part thereof shall not of itself make his legal representative or his estate liable for any act of the firm done after his death.
  2. If the estate of the deceased person’s property is insufficient to make good, the personal assets of the legal heirs will be liable for any of the acts done by the firm.
  3. The estate of the deceased person is liable for any of the act done by the firm.
  4. The legal heirs of the deceased partners shall be liable for any of the act done by the firm after the demise of the partner.

6. Whether a notice given to a partner, who habitually acts in the business of the firm of any matter relating to the affairs of the firm, will be deemed as notice to the firm:

  1. It will deemed as personal information to that partner
  2. Yes, it operates as notice to the firm, except in the case of a fraud on the firm committed by or with the consent of that partner
  3. It depends on the nature of the concerned partner whether he inform so to other partners
  4. No, it will not deemed as notice to the firm.

7. When there is any change in the constitution of the firm, what would be the statue of the continuing guarantee given to the firm:

  1. It shall be revoked as to future transactions from the date of any change in the constitution of the firm.
  2. Since it is the continuing guarantee, hence it be continuing.
  3. Only the parties to the continuing guarantee can only decide over the matter.
  4. None of the above.

8. Where a partner wilfully or persistently commits breach of agreements relating to the management of the affairs of the firm or the conduct of its business, or otherwise so conducts himself in matters relating to the business that it is not reasonably practicable for the other partners to carry on the business in partnership with him. The other partner(s) may:

  1. The partnership firm comes to an end automatically
  2. The other partners may decide to leave the firm.
  3. File a suit in the court for the dissolution of the firm.
  4. The other partners may decide to expel the concerned partner

9. The State Government may appoint Registrars of Firms for the purposes of this Act, every Registrar shall be deemed:

  1. To be a Central Government Servant.
  2. To be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code
  3. To be State Government Servant
  4. To be a private servant.

10. What type of agreement is used to form a partnership business?

  1. Written agreement
  2. Oral agreement
  3. Written or oral agreement
  4. None of them

Books for Indian Partnership Act

For your overall preparation of Indian Partnership Act you have to keep Bare Act are the major source. 

List of reference books for your preparation:

Books Author

Law of Partnership (In Nutshell)

Avtar Singh

Law of partnership

Dr. Snajeev Kumar

Textbook on Indian Partnership Act with Limited Liability Partnership Act

Dr. Madhusudan Saharay

List of practice books for Indian Partnership Act:

Books Author

Questions And Answers: Indian Partnership Act And Sale Of Goods Act 

 Samarth Agarwal Books 

Multiple Choice Questions on Law of Contract

Legis Orbis's Multiple Choice Questions Books

Conclusion:

Here are the key takeaways from this article for your overall preparation:

  • Indian Partnership Act is important for 6-8 state judiciary exams. If the state you are targetting has Indian Partnership Act in it's syllabus than you can refer to this article for the preparation.
  • Keep a note of all the important sections and focus on them.
  • Make Notes from day one, prepare for mains and prelims together.
  • For prelims ensure that you memorize all the important section numbers.
  • For mains understand all the concepts and make notes, because you will have to write mains answers.

All the best to all the Judiciary Aspirants.

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