International Organizations Notes for UP Judiciary Aspirants [Download PDF]

Author : Yogricha

Updated On : January 12, 2024

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Overview: International Organisations is a part of UP PCS-J Prelims examination and holds a weighatage of 5-14%. If you are aiming to crack UP PCS-J Prelims exam you must understand and memorise details of all the organisations. 

International Organisations are important across the globe to maintian peace, security and to help mankin globally in verious social aspects. There are more than 300 International Organisations in the world, however for UP Judiciary exams you have to focus only on 13-14 key organisations. UN (United Nations) is one of the key organisations that regulats several other organisations globally.

Read the article below for download International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary and also get all the other details that you need for your comprehensive preparation of UP Judiciary exams.

In this article we will cover:

  • Important International Organisations
  • International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary
  • Download free International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary from Judiciary Gold.
  • Previous Year Questions for practice

Overview of International Organisations:

When we see UP Judiciary syllabus, International Organisations must be focussed on properly, because it is important for the UP PCS-J exams. You must also practice UP Judiciary Mock Tests Moving forward let us understand the concept of International Organisations for UP Judiciary.

Global collaboration is vital for the maintenance of peace and the advancement of security, prosperity, and justice on a worldwide scale. Critical challenges such as environmental conservation, combating drug-related issues, achieving gender parity, ensuring food security, and managing population growth demand not local or regional solutions but rather a comprehensive, international approach. Hence in order to maintain peace and to collectively think on global issues there are various organisations that operate at international level. 

A significant evolution in International Law during the 19th and 20th centuries is the prominent role of International Organizations. These organizations operate on a global, regional, and sub-regional scale, with a primary goal of advancing the well-being of people. Developed nations are the primary sources of funding for these organizations, and they actively assist developing countries in improving the quality of life for their citizens. These organizations engage in a wide range of activities across multiple dimensions.

List of Important International Organisations:

Organisation Establishment Year Head quarters
United Nations 24 October 1945 New York, United States
UNESCO 16 November 1945 Paris, France
INTERPOL 7 September 1923 Lyon, France
IMF 27 December 1945 Washington, D.C., U.S.
SCO 15 June 2001 Beijing, China
WHO 7 April 1948 Geneva, Switzerland
WTO 1 January 1995 Geneva, Switzerland
NATO  4 April 1949 Washington, D.C., United States
BRICS 16 June 2009 Shanghai
BIMSTEC 1997 Dhaka, Bangladesh
ICJ 26 June 1945 San Francisco, U.S.
SAARC 8 December 1985 Kathmandu, Nepal
European Union 1 November 1993 Brussels and Luxembourg

For your judiciary preparation make sure that you study in depth all these above mentioned organisations.

International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary

International Organisations come into existence through the negotiation and adoption of treaties that serve as charters, formally establishing these entities. These treaties are the result of a ratification process involving lawful representatives, typically governments, from multiple states, granting the IGO international legal status. IGOs represent a significant component of public international law.

In 1935, Pitman B. Potter delineated international organizations as "associations or unions of nations, created or acknowledged by them to pursue a shared objective." He made a distinction between bilateral and multilateral organizations on one side and customary or conventional organizations on the other.

Know about: UP Judiciary Books to refer to for your preparation

ILO (International Labour Organization)

The International Labour Organization (ILO) was created as an entity affiliated with the League of Nations following World War I.

Its establishment was formalized through the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The visionaries behind its formation had already made substantial progress in the realm of social philosophy and activism even before the organization's inception. In 1946, it became the inaugural specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

The ILO has played a pivotal role in advancing labor and human rights and was particularly influential during the Great Depression of the 1930s in safeguarding workers' rights. It also played a crucial part in the decolonization process and contributed to the defeat of apartheid in South Africa. For its efforts in promoting peace among social classes and advocating for justice and equitable labor conditions, the organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.

The ILO stands as the sole tripartite agency within the United Nations system. It serves as a platform where representatives from governments, workers, and employers of member States convene to establish labor standards, enhance policies, and formulate initiatives that foster equitable employment opportunities. The cornerstone of the Decent Work initiative revolves around four pivotal strategic goals:

  1. The formulation and implementation of standards, fundamental principles, and basic labor rights.
  2. The promotion of equal access to decent work for both men and women, bolstering opportunities for all.
  3. The extension and improvement of comprehensive social protection for all individuals.
  4. The reinforcement of tripartism and the promotion of social dialogue.

Know about: How to prepare for Daily Current Affairs 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

UNESCO is renowned for its staunch support of freedom of expression and its resolute stance against the targeting of journalists. While it was officially established as UNESCO in 1945, its roots can be traced back to the League of Nations. The UNESCO Constitution took effect in 1946, with its headquarters situated in Paris. Furthermore, UNESCO holds membership in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

As of now, UNESCO boasts 193 member states. It's worth noting that the United States, Israel, and Liechtenstein are part of the United Nations but have opted not to join UNESCO. Their decision to withdraw in 2019 was grounded in concerns of perceived bias regarding the Palestinian issue. It's noteworthy that the United States had previously withdrawn from UNESCO in 1984 before rejoining in 2003.

Culture Conventions of UNESCO: These conventions have helped in the protection and preservation of the natural and cultural heritage of the world.

  • Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property (1970)
  • Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
  • Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)
  • Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001)
  • Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
  • Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)

Interpol

Interpol stands as the world's largest international police organization, boasting 194 member countries. Established in 1923, it plays a pivotal role in fostering cross-border police collaboration, offering support to a myriad of organizations, authorities, and services dedicated to preventing or combating international crime.

Interpol's mission extends to facilitating international police coordination, even in cases where diplomatic relations between certain nations are absent. All actions undertaken are constrained by the existing laws of each respective country and are aligned with the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The organization's constitution explicitly bars involvement in activities of a political, military, religious, or racial nature.

Interpol's Constitution, the organization encompasses the following administrative divisions:

  1. General Assembly
  2. General Secretariat
  3. Executive Committee
  4. National Central Bureaus

The General Assembly and the Executive Committee together constitute the governing body of the organization.

Read about: How to Prepare for Judiciary Exams from Scratch

IMF (International Monetary Fund)

International organizations such as the International Monetary Fund often feature in the news. Furthermore, UP judiciary includes topics related to international organizations. Consequently, it is crucial for aspirants to familiarize themselves with these institutions and organizations to aid in their preparation.

The breakdown of international monetary cooperation during the Great Depression led to the establishment of the IMF, with the aim of enhancing global economic growth and reducing poverty. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was initially conceived at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, where 45 government representatives gathered to devise a framework for postwar international economic collaboration.

The IMF became fully operational on December 27, 1945, with 29 member countries bound by the treaty. It initiated its financial operations on March 1, 1947. Presently, the IMF encompasses 189 member countries.

Recognized as a pivotal institution within the international economic system, the IMF focuses on restoring global financial stability while concurrently maximizing individual nations' economic autonomy and human welfare.

The IMF primarily concentrates on overseeing the international monetary system while extending financial assistance to member nations. The functions of the International Monetary Fund can be categorized into three key areas:

  1. Regulatory Functions: The IMF acts as a regulatory authority, enforcing rules outlined in the Articles of Agreement. It focuses on establishing guidelines for exchange rate policies and restrictions on payments related to current account transactions.
  2. Financial Functions: The IMF provides financial support and resources to member countries facing short-term and medium-term imbalances in their Balance of Payments (BOP).
  3. Consultative Functions: Serving as a hub for international cooperation among member nations, the IMF offers guidance and technical assistance to address economic challenges.

SCO (Sanghai Cooperation Organisation)

The primary objectives of the SCO encompass:

  1. Fostering mutual trust and neighborly relations among member states.
  2. Enhancing effective collaboration across various domains including trade, politics, research, economics, technology, culture, education, transport, energy, environmental conservation, and tourism.
  3. Jointly striving to uphold security, stability, and peace within the region.
  4. Progressing towards the establishment of a democratic, rational, and equitable international economic and political framework.

The organization's internal policies adhere to principles of mutual benefit, trust, consultations, equality, cultural diversity respect, and a shared pursuit of development. Externally, the organization's policy is guided by non-targeting and non-alignment principles.

There are 9 Member States:

  1. China
  2. India
  3. Kazakhstan
  4. Kyrgyzstan
  5. Russia
  6. Pakistan
  7. Tajikistan
  8. Uzbekistan
  9. Iran

Know More: Everything about Uttar Pradesh Judicial Services Exam.

WHO (WorldHealth Organisation)

During the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization, often referred to as the San Francisco Conference, Szeming Sze, a delegate representing the Republic of China (contemporary Taiwan), put forth the idea of forming an international health organization within the framework of the newly established United Nations. Alger Hiss, who served as the Secretary-General of the conference, suggested the use of a declaration to formalize the creation of such an organization.

Consequently, these deliberations led to the establishment of the World Health Organization in 1948, marking it as the inaugural specialized agency of the United Nations with unanimous membership support.

The WHO, led by its Director-General, is headquartered in Geneva and currently boasts 194 member countries. Full membership within the WHO is contingent upon ratifying the treaty known as the Constitution of the World Health Organization. For more information regarding the important headquarters of international organizations, you can refer to the linked article.

Member states of the WHO appoint delegates to the World Health Assembly, the supreme decision-making body, which is attended by delegations from all Member States and plays a pivotal role in shaping the Organization's policies.

On May 19, 2020, India was elected to the Executive Board of the World Health Organization for a three-year term during the 73rd World Health Assembly. Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan assumed the role of Chairman of the WHO Executive Board on May 22, succeeding Dr. Hiroki Nakatani from Japan.

WTO (World Trade Organization)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established in 1995, succeeding the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was founded in 1948 with the participation of 23 nations. GATT served as the global trade organization responsible for managing multilateral trade agreements, ensuring equitable opportunities for all nations in international trade.

The primary objective of the WTO is to establish a rule-based international trading system that prevents countries from imposing unreasonable trade restrictions. It also aims to expand the trade of goods and services, optimize the use of global resources, and protect the environment. WTO agreements encompass trade in both goods and services, promoting international trade through the removal of taxes and non-tariff barriers while enhancing market access for member nations.

India, as an influential member of the WTO, plays a leading role in shaping equitable global regulations and safeguards, with a strong focus on the concerns of developing economies. India has met its WTO commitments by eliminating quantitative import restrictions and reducing tariff rates, thereby contributing to trade liberalization.

Know Details: Preparation Tips for UP Judiciary Exam 

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

NATO, which stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is a military and political alliance comprising 28 member countries. The organization was established to safeguard the freedom and security of its member nations, with its headquarters situated in Brussels, Belgium. NATO was founded on April 4, 1949, with a commitment to collective defense, considering an attack on any member nation as an attack on all its allies.

NATO's main objective is the protection and preservation of the independence of its member countries. However, in recent years, it has expanded its mission due to evolving threats. NATO now includes safeguarding member nations from cyber-attacks, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction.

A Brief History of NATO: NATO was formed in 1949, following World War II, when the United States and several European nations joined the North Atlantic Treaty to collaborate against potential aggressors. Initially, NATO had 12 member nations in 1949, including Belgium, Denmark, Canada, France, Italy, Iceland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in 1952, followed by West Germany in 1955. Spain became a member in 1982. In 1997, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland joined NATO. Seven nations, including Estonia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia, became members in 2004, a year after NATO assumed control of the United Nations Mandated ISAF (International Security Assistance Force). Albania and Croatia joined the organization in 2009.

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa)

BRICS is a term representing five of the world's emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The acronym BRIC was originally coined by Jim O'Neill, who was the chairman of Goldman Sachs at the time, in 2001. The inaugural BRIC summit was held in 2009 in Yekaterinburg, Russia. In 2010, South Africa became an official member, transforming the group into BRICS.

The BRICS nations have chosen to enhance communication and cooperation in the realm of trade in services, and they plan to engage BRICS national focal points more closely with the BRICS Business Council, as outlined in the BRICS Framework for Cooperation on Trade in Services. This initiative is aimed at facilitating the adoption of relevant documents, including the BRICS Framework for Cooperation in Trade in Professional Services and the BRICS Trade in Services Cooperation Roadmap. Additionally, during the summit, it was announced that the BRICS' New Development Bank (NDB) has moved its permanent headquarters to Shanghai, and a regional office for the NDB has been established in India.

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BIMSTEC

BIMSTEC, a regional organization, consists of seven Member States. It includes five countries from South Asia, namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, and two countries from Southeast Asia, which are Myanmar and Thailand.

This sub-regional organization was established on June 6, 1997, with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration. The BIMSTEC Secretariat is headquartered in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Strategic Incentives for Regional Development: The BIMSTEC countries have compelling strategic interests in advancing the BIMSTEC initiative. For instance, Bangladesh views BIMSTEC as a platform to enhance its global standing beyond being a small nation along the Bay of Bengal. Sri Lanka regards it as an opportunity to establish links with Southeast Asia and become a pivotal hub in the broader Indo-Pacific Region. Nepal and Bhutan aspire to connect with the Bay of Bengal region to overcome their landlocked geographical constraints.

Myanmar and Thailand envision deeper ties with India and BIMSTEC to access India's growing consumer market, counterbalance China's influence in the region, and create alternatives to China's expansion into Southeast Asia. BIMSTEC offers the prospect of economic integration, regional security collaboration, and the utilization of shared values and historical ties to foster peace and development.

Significance for India: BIMSTEC not only forges links between South and Southeast Asia but also encompasses the diverse landscapes of the Great Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal. India perceives BIMSTEC as a natural platform to prioritize its foreign policy objectives of "Neighborhood First" and "Act East." The importance of BIMSTEC became evident when several of its member countries supported India's call for boycotting the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit in Islamabad, leading to its postponement. India considered this a successful move in isolating Pakistan.

ICJ (International Court of Justice)

The ICJ stands as one of the United Nations' six principal organs and is headquartered at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, marking a departure from the usual UN location in New York.

This preeminent judicial body within the UN is also commonly referred to as the World Court. Its establishment dates back to 1945, and it formally commenced its operations in 1946, supplanting the Permanent Court of International Justice that had been active in the Peace Palace since 1922.

The ICJ boasts a comprehensive membership, with all 193 UN member states automatically recognized as parties to the Court. States not affiliated with the UN can seek accession to the Court's statute through the Article 93 procedure.

The core mandate of the ICJ is to arbitrate disputes brought before it by parties in accordance with international law. Furthermore, the Court provides advisory opinions on legal matters raised by UN entities or specialized agencies.

Crucially, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) holds the authority to enforce ICJ rulings as outlined in the UN Charter. However, the permanent UNSC members retain the power to veto such decisions.

The official languages employed by the ICJ are English and French.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is an organization comprising European nations and was established in 1993. Its creation was formalized upon the endorsement of the Maastricht Treaty by 28 nations, also recognized as the Treaty of the European Union (TEU), named after the Dutch city of Maastricht where it was signed. This treaty underwent three subsequent amendments:

  1. Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  2. Treaty of Nice (2001)
  3. Treaty of Lisbon (2007)

The European Union's aims are detailed below:

  1. Promoting political cooperation
  2. Advancing economic integration by introducing a single currency, the EURO.
  3. Establishing a unified security and foreign policy
  4. Ensuring common citizenship rights
  5. Strengthening cooperation in areas such as judiciary, immigration, and asylum.

In recognition of its peacekeeping efforts, the European Union was honored with the Nobel Prize for Peace in 2012.

European Union – Origins In the wake of World War II, European leaders recognized that extensive integration was essential to counteract the extreme nationalism that had led to the global conflict. Winston Churchill even proposed the concept of the United States of Europe. A critical moment in European federal history occurred during the 1948 Hague Congress, which gave rise to the formation of the European Movement International and the College of Europe, where future European leaders would coexist and study. This ultimately led to the establishment of the following unions, which later evolved into the European Union:

  1. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) – Treaty of Paris 1951
  2. European Economic Community (EEC) – Treaty of Rome 1957

The original six members of the European Communities were:

  1. France
  2. Italy
  3. Netherlands
  4. Belgium
  5. West Germany
  6. Luxembourg

SAARC

SAARC was established by a group of seven states back in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan expressed its desire to join SAARC and formally submitted its application for membership that year. The organization's inception took place in Dhaka on December 8, 1985, and its secretariat is headquartered in Kathmandu, Nepal. Additionally, potential future members of SAARC, namely Turkey and Russia, have also submitted applications for membership.

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) emerged in the aftermath of the destructive World War II, with a primary mission to avert large-scale international conflicts in the future. It succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. On April 25, 1945, delegates from 50 nations convened in San Francisco to compose the UN Charter, which was officially adopted on June 25, 1945, and became operational on October 24, 1945.

Know about: UP PCS J Exam Eligibility Criteria 2023

United Nations Functions

The organization, as outlined in its Charter, is dedicated to several objectives. These include the maintenance of international peace and security, safeguarding human rights, providing humanitarian assistance, fostering sustainable development, and upholding the principles of international law. Since its inception with 51 member states, the UN has seen its membership expand to 193 in 2011, encompassing a significant portion of the world's independent nations.

Structure of the United Nations

The United Nations operates through a framework consisting of five primary organs:

  1. General Assembly
  2. United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
  3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
  4. International Court of Justice
  5. UN Secretariat.

A sixth principal organ, the Trusteeship Council, ceased its activities on November 1, 1994, following the independence of Palau, the last UN trust territory.

Download free International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary from Judiciary Gold.

For Up Judiciary it is a must for you have a command on International Organisations and therefore you can refer to International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary by Judiciary Gold and make your own notes in similar pattern. After the release of UP Judiciary Exam dates you must prepare for Prelims and Mains together. Whlile making your notes make  sure that all the points you have mentioned are focused direclty on UP PCS-J,

Previous Year Questions for practice.

For any Judiciary aspirant preparing for UP Judiciary exam, practice is the key to success. For Prelims you have to practice multiple Choice questions and for mains get into the details of the topic because for mains you have to write long answers for the questions. After referring to the international organizations notes pdf get a glimpse of the types of questions that are asked in UP-PCS J examination.

UP Judiciary Prelims Questions for Practice:

Q 1) Which of the following is not associated with the UNO?

  1. ILO
  2. WHO
  3. ASEAN
  4. All of the above

Q 2) The chairmanship/presidency of the UN Security Council rotates among the Council Members

  1. every 6 months
  2. every 3 months
  3. every year
  4. every month

Q 3) Which of the following is not a chief organ of the United Nations Organisations?

  1. International Labour Organisation
  2. Security Council
  3. International Court of Justice
  4. General Assembly

Q 4) Permanent Secretariat to coordinate the implementation of SAARC programme is located at

  1. Dhaka
  2. New Delhi
  3. Colombo
  4. Kathmandu

Get details: Uttar Pradesh Judicial Services Exam.

Q 5) The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is located at which of the following places?

  1. Geneva
  2. Rome
  3. Paris
  4. Vienna

UP Judiciary Mains Questions for Practice:

  1. How does the International Court of Justice differ from other international courts?

  2. What is meant by security council? Mention its composition?

  3. What is the World Health Organisation (WHO)?

  4. Name the international agency relating to environmental programme.

  5. Discuss the composition of General Assembly.

  6. Why are international organisations like the UN required?

  7. Suggest some reforms required in the United Nations.

Read More: Geography Preparation for UP Judiciary 2023

Conclusion:

International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary can help you in staying ahead in your preparation for this subject. Do not miss making your own ready reckoner notes for last minute revision. Here are some they takeaways from this article:

  • Making your own notes will give you an extra edge in your preparation.
  • Download the short notes by Judiciary Gold and use them for your preparation.
  • Practice is the key to crack UP Judiciairy exams along with studying International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary..
  • Do not make very long notes, make short notes in pointers with all the important details.

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International Organizations Notes for UP Judiciary Aspirants [Download PDF]

Author : Yogricha

January 12, 2024

SHARE

Overview: International Organisations is a part of UP PCS-J Prelims examination and holds a weighatage of 5-14%. If you are aiming to crack UP PCS-J Prelims exam you must understand and memorise details of all the organisations. 

International Organisations are important across the globe to maintian peace, security and to help mankin globally in verious social aspects. There are more than 300 International Organisations in the world, however for UP Judiciary exams you have to focus only on 13-14 key organisations. UN (United Nations) is one of the key organisations that regulats several other organisations globally.

Read the article below for download International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary and also get all the other details that you need for your comprehensive preparation of UP Judiciary exams.

In this article we will cover:

  • Important International Organisations
  • International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary
  • Download free International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary from Judiciary Gold.
  • Previous Year Questions for practice

Overview of International Organisations:

When we see UP Judiciary syllabus, International Organisations must be focussed on properly, because it is important for the UP PCS-J exams. You must also practice UP Judiciary Mock Tests Moving forward let us understand the concept of International Organisations for UP Judiciary.

Global collaboration is vital for the maintenance of peace and the advancement of security, prosperity, and justice on a worldwide scale. Critical challenges such as environmental conservation, combating drug-related issues, achieving gender parity, ensuring food security, and managing population growth demand not local or regional solutions but rather a comprehensive, international approach. Hence in order to maintain peace and to collectively think on global issues there are various organisations that operate at international level. 

A significant evolution in International Law during the 19th and 20th centuries is the prominent role of International Organizations. These organizations operate on a global, regional, and sub-regional scale, with a primary goal of advancing the well-being of people. Developed nations are the primary sources of funding for these organizations, and they actively assist developing countries in improving the quality of life for their citizens. These organizations engage in a wide range of activities across multiple dimensions.

List of Important International Organisations:

Organisation Establishment Year Head quarters
United Nations 24 October 1945 New York, United States
UNESCO 16 November 1945 Paris, France
INTERPOL 7 September 1923 Lyon, France
IMF 27 December 1945 Washington, D.C., U.S.
SCO 15 June 2001 Beijing, China
WHO 7 April 1948 Geneva, Switzerland
WTO 1 January 1995 Geneva, Switzerland
NATO  4 April 1949 Washington, D.C., United States
BRICS 16 June 2009 Shanghai
BIMSTEC 1997 Dhaka, Bangladesh
ICJ 26 June 1945 San Francisco, U.S.
SAARC 8 December 1985 Kathmandu, Nepal
European Union 1 November 1993 Brussels and Luxembourg

For your judiciary preparation make sure that you study in depth all these above mentioned organisations.

International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary

International Organisations come into existence through the negotiation and adoption of treaties that serve as charters, formally establishing these entities. These treaties are the result of a ratification process involving lawful representatives, typically governments, from multiple states, granting the IGO international legal status. IGOs represent a significant component of public international law.

In 1935, Pitman B. Potter delineated international organizations as "associations or unions of nations, created or acknowledged by them to pursue a shared objective." He made a distinction between bilateral and multilateral organizations on one side and customary or conventional organizations on the other.

Know about: UP Judiciary Books to refer to for your preparation

ILO (International Labour Organization)

The International Labour Organization (ILO) was created as an entity affiliated with the League of Nations following World War I.

Its establishment was formalized through the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The visionaries behind its formation had already made substantial progress in the realm of social philosophy and activism even before the organization's inception. In 1946, it became the inaugural specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

The ILO has played a pivotal role in advancing labor and human rights and was particularly influential during the Great Depression of the 1930s in safeguarding workers' rights. It also played a crucial part in the decolonization process and contributed to the defeat of apartheid in South Africa. For its efforts in promoting peace among social classes and advocating for justice and equitable labor conditions, the organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.

The ILO stands as the sole tripartite agency within the United Nations system. It serves as a platform where representatives from governments, workers, and employers of member States convene to establish labor standards, enhance policies, and formulate initiatives that foster equitable employment opportunities. The cornerstone of the Decent Work initiative revolves around four pivotal strategic goals:

  1. The formulation and implementation of standards, fundamental principles, and basic labor rights.
  2. The promotion of equal access to decent work for both men and women, bolstering opportunities for all.
  3. The extension and improvement of comprehensive social protection for all individuals.
  4. The reinforcement of tripartism and the promotion of social dialogue.

Know about: How to prepare for Daily Current Affairs 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

UNESCO is renowned for its staunch support of freedom of expression and its resolute stance against the targeting of journalists. While it was officially established as UNESCO in 1945, its roots can be traced back to the League of Nations. The UNESCO Constitution took effect in 1946, with its headquarters situated in Paris. Furthermore, UNESCO holds membership in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

As of now, UNESCO boasts 193 member states. It's worth noting that the United States, Israel, and Liechtenstein are part of the United Nations but have opted not to join UNESCO. Their decision to withdraw in 2019 was grounded in concerns of perceived bias regarding the Palestinian issue. It's noteworthy that the United States had previously withdrawn from UNESCO in 1984 before rejoining in 2003.

Culture Conventions of UNESCO: These conventions have helped in the protection and preservation of the natural and cultural heritage of the world.

  • Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property (1970)
  • Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
  • Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)
  • Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001)
  • Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
  • Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)

Interpol

Interpol stands as the world's largest international police organization, boasting 194 member countries. Established in 1923, it plays a pivotal role in fostering cross-border police collaboration, offering support to a myriad of organizations, authorities, and services dedicated to preventing or combating international crime.

Interpol's mission extends to facilitating international police coordination, even in cases where diplomatic relations between certain nations are absent. All actions undertaken are constrained by the existing laws of each respective country and are aligned with the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The organization's constitution explicitly bars involvement in activities of a political, military, religious, or racial nature.

Interpol's Constitution, the organization encompasses the following administrative divisions:

  1. General Assembly
  2. General Secretariat
  3. Executive Committee
  4. National Central Bureaus

The General Assembly and the Executive Committee together constitute the governing body of the organization.

Read about: How to Prepare for Judiciary Exams from Scratch

IMF (International Monetary Fund)

International organizations such as the International Monetary Fund often feature in the news. Furthermore, UP judiciary includes topics related to international organizations. Consequently, it is crucial for aspirants to familiarize themselves with these institutions and organizations to aid in their preparation.

The breakdown of international monetary cooperation during the Great Depression led to the establishment of the IMF, with the aim of enhancing global economic growth and reducing poverty. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was initially conceived at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, where 45 government representatives gathered to devise a framework for postwar international economic collaboration.

The IMF became fully operational on December 27, 1945, with 29 member countries bound by the treaty. It initiated its financial operations on March 1, 1947. Presently, the IMF encompasses 189 member countries.

Recognized as a pivotal institution within the international economic system, the IMF focuses on restoring global financial stability while concurrently maximizing individual nations' economic autonomy and human welfare.

The IMF primarily concentrates on overseeing the international monetary system while extending financial assistance to member nations. The functions of the International Monetary Fund can be categorized into three key areas:

  1. Regulatory Functions: The IMF acts as a regulatory authority, enforcing rules outlined in the Articles of Agreement. It focuses on establishing guidelines for exchange rate policies and restrictions on payments related to current account transactions.
  2. Financial Functions: The IMF provides financial support and resources to member countries facing short-term and medium-term imbalances in their Balance of Payments (BOP).
  3. Consultative Functions: Serving as a hub for international cooperation among member nations, the IMF offers guidance and technical assistance to address economic challenges.

SCO (Sanghai Cooperation Organisation)

The primary objectives of the SCO encompass:

  1. Fostering mutual trust and neighborly relations among member states.
  2. Enhancing effective collaboration across various domains including trade, politics, research, economics, technology, culture, education, transport, energy, environmental conservation, and tourism.
  3. Jointly striving to uphold security, stability, and peace within the region.
  4. Progressing towards the establishment of a democratic, rational, and equitable international economic and political framework.

The organization's internal policies adhere to principles of mutual benefit, trust, consultations, equality, cultural diversity respect, and a shared pursuit of development. Externally, the organization's policy is guided by non-targeting and non-alignment principles.

There are 9 Member States:

  1. China
  2. India
  3. Kazakhstan
  4. Kyrgyzstan
  5. Russia
  6. Pakistan
  7. Tajikistan
  8. Uzbekistan
  9. Iran

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WHO (WorldHealth Organisation)

During the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization, often referred to as the San Francisco Conference, Szeming Sze, a delegate representing the Republic of China (contemporary Taiwan), put forth the idea of forming an international health organization within the framework of the newly established United Nations. Alger Hiss, who served as the Secretary-General of the conference, suggested the use of a declaration to formalize the creation of such an organization.

Consequently, these deliberations led to the establishment of the World Health Organization in 1948, marking it as the inaugural specialized agency of the United Nations with unanimous membership support.

The WHO, led by its Director-General, is headquartered in Geneva and currently boasts 194 member countries. Full membership within the WHO is contingent upon ratifying the treaty known as the Constitution of the World Health Organization. For more information regarding the important headquarters of international organizations, you can refer to the linked article.

Member states of the WHO appoint delegates to the World Health Assembly, the supreme decision-making body, which is attended by delegations from all Member States and plays a pivotal role in shaping the Organization's policies.

On May 19, 2020, India was elected to the Executive Board of the World Health Organization for a three-year term during the 73rd World Health Assembly. Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan assumed the role of Chairman of the WHO Executive Board on May 22, succeeding Dr. Hiroki Nakatani from Japan.

WTO (World Trade Organization)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established in 1995, succeeding the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was founded in 1948 with the participation of 23 nations. GATT served as the global trade organization responsible for managing multilateral trade agreements, ensuring equitable opportunities for all nations in international trade.

The primary objective of the WTO is to establish a rule-based international trading system that prevents countries from imposing unreasonable trade restrictions. It also aims to expand the trade of goods and services, optimize the use of global resources, and protect the environment. WTO agreements encompass trade in both goods and services, promoting international trade through the removal of taxes and non-tariff barriers while enhancing market access for member nations.

India, as an influential member of the WTO, plays a leading role in shaping equitable global regulations and safeguards, with a strong focus on the concerns of developing economies. India has met its WTO commitments by eliminating quantitative import restrictions and reducing tariff rates, thereby contributing to trade liberalization.

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NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

NATO, which stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is a military and political alliance comprising 28 member countries. The organization was established to safeguard the freedom and security of its member nations, with its headquarters situated in Brussels, Belgium. NATO was founded on April 4, 1949, with a commitment to collective defense, considering an attack on any member nation as an attack on all its allies.

NATO's main objective is the protection and preservation of the independence of its member countries. However, in recent years, it has expanded its mission due to evolving threats. NATO now includes safeguarding member nations from cyber-attacks, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction.

A Brief History of NATO: NATO was formed in 1949, following World War II, when the United States and several European nations joined the North Atlantic Treaty to collaborate against potential aggressors. Initially, NATO had 12 member nations in 1949, including Belgium, Denmark, Canada, France, Italy, Iceland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in 1952, followed by West Germany in 1955. Spain became a member in 1982. In 1997, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland joined NATO. Seven nations, including Estonia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia, became members in 2004, a year after NATO assumed control of the United Nations Mandated ISAF (International Security Assistance Force). Albania and Croatia joined the organization in 2009.

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa)

BRICS is a term representing five of the world's emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The acronym BRIC was originally coined by Jim O'Neill, who was the chairman of Goldman Sachs at the time, in 2001. The inaugural BRIC summit was held in 2009 in Yekaterinburg, Russia. In 2010, South Africa became an official member, transforming the group into BRICS.

The BRICS nations have chosen to enhance communication and cooperation in the realm of trade in services, and they plan to engage BRICS national focal points more closely with the BRICS Business Council, as outlined in the BRICS Framework for Cooperation on Trade in Services. This initiative is aimed at facilitating the adoption of relevant documents, including the BRICS Framework for Cooperation in Trade in Professional Services and the BRICS Trade in Services Cooperation Roadmap. Additionally, during the summit, it was announced that the BRICS' New Development Bank (NDB) has moved its permanent headquarters to Shanghai, and a regional office for the NDB has been established in India.

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BIMSTEC

BIMSTEC, a regional organization, consists of seven Member States. It includes five countries from South Asia, namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, and two countries from Southeast Asia, which are Myanmar and Thailand.

This sub-regional organization was established on June 6, 1997, with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration. The BIMSTEC Secretariat is headquartered in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Strategic Incentives for Regional Development: The BIMSTEC countries have compelling strategic interests in advancing the BIMSTEC initiative. For instance, Bangladesh views BIMSTEC as a platform to enhance its global standing beyond being a small nation along the Bay of Bengal. Sri Lanka regards it as an opportunity to establish links with Southeast Asia and become a pivotal hub in the broader Indo-Pacific Region. Nepal and Bhutan aspire to connect with the Bay of Bengal region to overcome their landlocked geographical constraints.

Myanmar and Thailand envision deeper ties with India and BIMSTEC to access India's growing consumer market, counterbalance China's influence in the region, and create alternatives to China's expansion into Southeast Asia. BIMSTEC offers the prospect of economic integration, regional security collaboration, and the utilization of shared values and historical ties to foster peace and development.

Significance for India: BIMSTEC not only forges links between South and Southeast Asia but also encompasses the diverse landscapes of the Great Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal. India perceives BIMSTEC as a natural platform to prioritize its foreign policy objectives of "Neighborhood First" and "Act East." The importance of BIMSTEC became evident when several of its member countries supported India's call for boycotting the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit in Islamabad, leading to its postponement. India considered this a successful move in isolating Pakistan.

ICJ (International Court of Justice)

The ICJ stands as one of the United Nations' six principal organs and is headquartered at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, marking a departure from the usual UN location in New York.

This preeminent judicial body within the UN is also commonly referred to as the World Court. Its establishment dates back to 1945, and it formally commenced its operations in 1946, supplanting the Permanent Court of International Justice that had been active in the Peace Palace since 1922.

The ICJ boasts a comprehensive membership, with all 193 UN member states automatically recognized as parties to the Court. States not affiliated with the UN can seek accession to the Court's statute through the Article 93 procedure.

The core mandate of the ICJ is to arbitrate disputes brought before it by parties in accordance with international law. Furthermore, the Court provides advisory opinions on legal matters raised by UN entities or specialized agencies.

Crucially, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) holds the authority to enforce ICJ rulings as outlined in the UN Charter. However, the permanent UNSC members retain the power to veto such decisions.

The official languages employed by the ICJ are English and French.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is an organization comprising European nations and was established in 1993. Its creation was formalized upon the endorsement of the Maastricht Treaty by 28 nations, also recognized as the Treaty of the European Union (TEU), named after the Dutch city of Maastricht where it was signed. This treaty underwent three subsequent amendments:

  1. Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  2. Treaty of Nice (2001)
  3. Treaty of Lisbon (2007)

The European Union's aims are detailed below:

  1. Promoting political cooperation
  2. Advancing economic integration by introducing a single currency, the EURO.
  3. Establishing a unified security and foreign policy
  4. Ensuring common citizenship rights
  5. Strengthening cooperation in areas such as judiciary, immigration, and asylum.

In recognition of its peacekeeping efforts, the European Union was honored with the Nobel Prize for Peace in 2012.

European Union – Origins In the wake of World War II, European leaders recognized that extensive integration was essential to counteract the extreme nationalism that had led to the global conflict. Winston Churchill even proposed the concept of the United States of Europe. A critical moment in European federal history occurred during the 1948 Hague Congress, which gave rise to the formation of the European Movement International and the College of Europe, where future European leaders would coexist and study. This ultimately led to the establishment of the following unions, which later evolved into the European Union:

  1. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) – Treaty of Paris 1951
  2. European Economic Community (EEC) – Treaty of Rome 1957

The original six members of the European Communities were:

  1. France
  2. Italy
  3. Netherlands
  4. Belgium
  5. West Germany
  6. Luxembourg

SAARC

SAARC was established by a group of seven states back in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan expressed its desire to join SAARC and formally submitted its application for membership that year. The organization's inception took place in Dhaka on December 8, 1985, and its secretariat is headquartered in Kathmandu, Nepal. Additionally, potential future members of SAARC, namely Turkey and Russia, have also submitted applications for membership.

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) emerged in the aftermath of the destructive World War II, with a primary mission to avert large-scale international conflicts in the future. It succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. On April 25, 1945, delegates from 50 nations convened in San Francisco to compose the UN Charter, which was officially adopted on June 25, 1945, and became operational on October 24, 1945.

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United Nations Functions

The organization, as outlined in its Charter, is dedicated to several objectives. These include the maintenance of international peace and security, safeguarding human rights, providing humanitarian assistance, fostering sustainable development, and upholding the principles of international law. Since its inception with 51 member states, the UN has seen its membership expand to 193 in 2011, encompassing a significant portion of the world's independent nations.

Structure of the United Nations

The United Nations operates through a framework consisting of five primary organs:

  1. General Assembly
  2. United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
  3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
  4. International Court of Justice
  5. UN Secretariat.

A sixth principal organ, the Trusteeship Council, ceased its activities on November 1, 1994, following the independence of Palau, the last UN trust territory.

Download free International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary from Judiciary Gold.

For Up Judiciary it is a must for you have a command on International Organisations and therefore you can refer to International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary by Judiciary Gold and make your own notes in similar pattern. After the release of UP Judiciary Exam dates you must prepare for Prelims and Mains together. Whlile making your notes make  sure that all the points you have mentioned are focused direclty on UP PCS-J,

Previous Year Questions for practice.

For any Judiciary aspirant preparing for UP Judiciary exam, practice is the key to success. For Prelims you have to practice multiple Choice questions and for mains get into the details of the topic because for mains you have to write long answers for the questions. After referring to the international organizations notes pdf get a glimpse of the types of questions that are asked in UP-PCS J examination.

UP Judiciary Prelims Questions for Practice:

Q 1) Which of the following is not associated with the UNO?

  1. ILO
  2. WHO
  3. ASEAN
  4. All of the above

Q 2) The chairmanship/presidency of the UN Security Council rotates among the Council Members

  1. every 6 months
  2. every 3 months
  3. every year
  4. every month

Q 3) Which of the following is not a chief organ of the United Nations Organisations?

  1. International Labour Organisation
  2. Security Council
  3. International Court of Justice
  4. General Assembly

Q 4) Permanent Secretariat to coordinate the implementation of SAARC programme is located at

  1. Dhaka
  2. New Delhi
  3. Colombo
  4. Kathmandu

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Q 5) The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is located at which of the following places?

  1. Geneva
  2. Rome
  3. Paris
  4. Vienna

UP Judiciary Mains Questions for Practice:

  1. How does the International Court of Justice differ from other international courts?

  2. What is meant by security council? Mention its composition?

  3. What is the World Health Organisation (WHO)?

  4. Name the international agency relating to environmental programme.

  5. Discuss the composition of General Assembly.

  6. Why are international organisations like the UN required?

  7. Suggest some reforms required in the United Nations.

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Conclusion:

International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary can help you in staying ahead in your preparation for this subject. Do not miss making your own ready reckoner notes for last minute revision. Here are some they takeaways from this article:

  • Making your own notes will give you an extra edge in your preparation.
  • Download the short notes by Judiciary Gold and use them for your preparation.
  • Practice is the key to crack UP Judiciairy exams along with studying International Organisations Notes for UP Judiciary..
  • Do not make very long notes, make short notes in pointers with all the important details.

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