InformationTechnology Act, 2000 for Judiciary Preparation (Download Notes)

Author : Yogricha

Updated On : January 11, 2024

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Overview:  Information Technology Act, 2000 is a part of prelims and mains syllabus for a lot of state judiciary exams and in order to score better in your judiciary exams. In seceral judiciary exams like Delhi Judiciary, Bihar Judiciary, Madhya Pradesh Judiciary and other Judiciary exams you must study IT Act in totality. For your overall preparation of Information Technology Act, 2000 you must make your own notes and short points for revision. This article will help you a lot in your preparation. Read this blog completely and download notes. You can also download the practice test in order to test your preparation.

In this article we will cover:

  • Important sections of IT Act, 2000
  • Notes of Information Technology Act, 2000 for Judiciary Preparation
  • Practice Questions for Judiciary
  • Amendments to the Information Technology Act, 200

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Important sections of IT Act, 2000 for Judiciary Exams

  1. Section 3A gives the conditions of a reliable electronic signature. 
  2. Government can anytime make rules for electronic signatures according to Section 10.
  3. Section 17 talks about the appointment of the controller, deputy controllers, assistant controllers, and other employees of certifying authorities.
  4. Section 18, provides functions of the Controller of certifying authority.
  5. Section 21 provides that any such license can be obtained by making an application to the controller.
  6. The authorities can suspend the certificate of digital signature for not more than 15 days as per Section 37.
  7.  damages by way of compensation is given in Section 43
  8. Attempting Unauthorized Alteration of Computer Resources - Section 65
  9. Attempted Unauthorized Access to Computer Data - Section 66
  10. Imposing Penalties for Misappropriation of Stolen Information from Computers or Electronic Devices - Section 66B
  11. Imposing Penalties for Identity Theft - Section 66C
  12. Imposing Penalties for Accessing Personal Data Through Deceptive Computer Use - Section 66D
  13. Imposing Penalties for Violation of Privacy - Section 66E
  14. Imposing Penalties for Cyber Terrorism - Section 66F
  15. Provisions Regarding Publication of Offensive Material - Section 67
  16. Imposing Penalties for Publishing or Circulating Sexually Explicit Content Through Electronic Means - Section 67A
  17. Publishing or Broadcasting Inappropriate Material Involving Children - Section 67B
  18. Imposing Penalties for Mediating Information Disruption or Blockage - Section 67C
  19. Provisions for Unauthorized Access to Secured Computers - Section 70
  20. Unauthorized Data Disclosure or Alteration - Section 71
  21. Provisions Concerning Privacy and Mutual Trust - Section 72
  22. Provisions Relating to Breach of Protocol Terms - Section 72
  23. Disclosure of Forged Digital Signatures - Section 73
  24. The Information Technology Act grants Inspector-level police officers the authority to investigate these cases under Section 78.
  25. Clarification of Key Terminology: Section 2(1) of the Act elucidates various terms utilized within the Act, such as cyber cafes, computer systems, digital signatures, electronic records, data, asymmetric cryptosystems, and more.
  26. Legitimacy of Electronic Transactions: Section 10A safeguards all transactions and contracts executed through electronic means, deeming them valid.
  27. Recognition of Foreign Certifying Authorities: Section 19 of the Act acknowledges foreign certifying authorities and their role in electronic authentication.

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Notes of Information Technology Act, 2000 for Judiciary Preparation

Introduction

The Information Technology Act, 2000, often referred to as the IT Act 2000, is a landmark legislation in India that has played a pivotal role in shaping the country's digital landscape. Enacted on October 17, 2000, this act is the primary legal framework governing electronic commerce, electronic records, and digital signatures in India. It aims to provide legal recognition for electronic documents, facilitate e-governance, and combat cybercrimes.

Key Provisions:

  1. Legal Recognition of Electronic Records: One of the fundamental aspects of the IT Act 2000 is its provision for the legal recognition of electronic records. It states that, unless otherwise agreed upon, contracts may be expressed through electronic communication, granting them legal validity and enforceability.
  2. Digital Signatures: The Act acknowledges the importance of digital signatures in electronic transactions. It defines the concept and provides legal recognition for electronic records and digital signatures. Digital signatures are used to ensure the integrity of electronic records and authenticate the identity of the signatory.
  3. Cybercrimes and Penalties: To combat cybercrimes and protect digital assets, the IT Act 2000 prescribes penalties for various offenses. These offenses include unauthorized access to computer systems, data theft, and the dissemination of malicious code. Penalties range from fines to imprisonment, depending on the severity of the offense.
  4. Data Protection: The Act addresses issues related to data protection and privacy. It requires organizations handling sensitive personal data to implement security measures to protect this information. Any breach of data privacy can result in significant legal consequences.
  5. Cyber Appellate Tribunal: The IT Act 2000 establishes a Cyber Appellate Tribunal, responsible for hearing appeals against orders issued by the Controller of Certifying Authorities. This tribunal plays a crucial role in ensuring compliance with digital signature regulations.
  6. Electronic Signatures: The Act also recognizes electronic signatures as valid means of authenticating electronic records. It specifies that a subscriber can authenticate any electronic record using an electronic signature or electronic authentication method specified in the Second Schedule of the Act.

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Impact and Significance:

  1. E-Governance: The IT Act 2000 has paved the way for e-governance initiatives in India. It has allowed government agencies to transition from paper-based processes to digital platforms, making public services more efficient and accessible.
  2. Electronic Commerce: The Act has facilitated the growth of electronic commerce in India. It has created a legal framework for online contracts, digital transactions, and electronic signatures, boosting the country's digital economy.
  3. Cybersecurity: In an increasingly interconnected world, the IT Act 2000 has become crucial in addressing cybersecurity challenges. It equips law enforcement agencies with tools to combat cybercrimes effectively.
  4. Data Privacy: With the Act's provisions on data protection and privacy, individuals and organizations are more aware of their responsibilities regarding the handling of personal data, contributing to enhanced data privacy practices.

Applicability of the Information Technology Act, 2000:

As per Section 1, the Act is applicable across the entire nation, including the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Furthermore, the Act's jurisdiction extends extraterritorially, meaning it applies to individuals committing offenses outside the country if the source of the offense, such as a computer or similar device, is located in India. In such cases, irrespective of their nationality, the individual will be subject to punishment under the Act.

However, the Act does not pertain to documents outlined in Schedule 1, which include:

  1. Any negotiable instrument, except a cheque as defined in Section 13 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
  2. Any power of attorney as per Section 1A of the Powers of Attorney Act, 1882.
  3. Various types of trusts according to Section 3 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.
  4. Wills, including testamentary dispositions, governed by the Indian Succession Act, 1925.
  5. Contracts or sale deeds related to immovable property.

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Objectives of the Information Technology Act, 2000:

This Act was enacted to address the complexities of e-commerce, digital signatures, and related matters. It aims to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Protection of Electronic Transactions: The Act ensures the protection of all transactions conducted through electronic means.
  2. Legal Recognition of E-Communication: With e-commerce reducing the reliance on paperwork for communication, the Act provides legal protection to electronic communication and information exchange.
  3. Safeguarding Digital Signatures: The Act safeguards digital signatures used for legal authentication.
  4. Regulation of Intermediaries: It establishes guidelines for intermediaries and monitors their powers.
  5. Offense Definitions: The Act defines various offenses related to the data privacy of citizens, thereby safeguarding their data.
  6. Regulation of Sensitive Data: It regulates and protects sensitive data held by social media and other electronic intermediaries.
  7. Recognition of Electronic Books of Accounts: The Act grants recognition to electronic books of accounts regulated by the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

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Features of the Information Technology Act, 2000:

The Information Technology Act, 2000 encompasses several key features, including:

  1. Model Law Basis: The Act is rooted in the Model Law on e-commerce adopted by UNCITRAL, ensuring a globally recognized framework.
  2. Extra-territorial Jurisdiction: The Act holds extraterritorial jurisdiction, allowing its application to offenses committed outside the country if certain conditions are met.
  3. Terminology Definitions: It defines various essential terms used throughout the Act, such as cyber cafes, computer systems, digital signatures, electronic records, data, asymmetric cryptosystems, etc, detailed in Section 2(1).
  4. Validity of Electronic Transactions: The Act safeguards all transactions and contracts conducted via electronic means, affirming their validity (Section 10A).
  5. Recognition of Digital Signatures: It recognizes digital signatures and outlines authentication methods.
  6. Controller Appointment and Powers: The Act includes provisions pertaining to the appointment of the Controller and delineates the Controller's powers.
  7. Recognition of Foreign Certifying Authorities: Section 19 acknowledges foreign certifying authorities.
  8. Penalties for System Damage: The Act specifies penalties for individuals who damage a computer system owned by someone other than themselves.
  9. Establishment of Appellate Tribunal: An Appellate Tribunal, established under the Act, handles appeals from decisions made by the Controller or other Adjudicating officers.
  10. High Court Appeal: Appeals from the tribunal's decisions can be pursued further in the High Court.
  11. Offense Definitions and Punishments: The Act defines various offenses related to data and prescribes their punishments.
  12. Intermediary Liability Protection: It delineates circumstances under which intermediaries are not held liable, even in cases of data privacy breaches.
  13. Cyber Regulation Advisory Committee: Under the Act, a Cyber Regulation Advisory Committee is instituted to advise the Central Government on matters concerning e-commerce and digital signatures.

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Electronic Records and Signatures in Accordance with the Information Technology Act, 2000:

Electronic Records Definition: As per Section 2(1)(t) of the Act, electronic records encompass any data, image, record, or file transmitted through electronic means.

Electronic Signature: Section 2(1)(ta) of the Act defines electronic signatures as any signatures used to authenticate electronic records in the form of a digital signature. Authentication is achieved through asymmetric cryptosystems and hash functions, detailed in Section 3 of the Act.

Conditions for Reliable Electronic Signatures (Section 3A):

  1. Linked to Signatory/Authenticator: Reliable electronic signatures are those linked to the signatory or authenticator.
  2. Under Signatory's Control: The signatures must be under the control of the signatory during the signing process.
  3. Detectable Alterations: Any alterations to the signature or authenticated information must be detectable post-fixation or alteration.
  4. Detectable Alterations: Alterations made to authenticated information must also be detectable.
  5. Additional Conditions: The Central Government may specify additional conditions.

Rules for Electronic Signatures: Section 10 empowers the government to establish rules governing electronic signatures.

Attribution of Electronic Records (Section 11):

An electronic record is attributed if sent by the originator or another person on their behalf. Receipt acknowledgment is necessary unless specified otherwise (Section 12).

Dispatch and Receipt (Section 13):

  1. Addressee's Computer Resource: Receipt occurs when the addressee provides a computer resource.
  2. Entry into Designated Resource: Entry into the designated computer resource signifies receipt.
  3. Retrieval by Addressee: In cases involving a different computer system, receipt happens upon retrieval by the addressee.
  4. Unspecified Resource: If the addressee doesn't specify a computer resource, receipt occurs when the record enters any of the addressee's computer sources.

Certifying Authorities:

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Controller's Appointment (Section 17):

The Controller, deputy controllers, assistant controllers, and other employees of certifying authorities are appointed under this section. Deputy controllers and assistant controllers function under the Controller's guidance, with their terms, qualifications, experience, and conditions of service determined by the Central Government. The head office location of the Controller is also decided by the Central Government.

Controller's Functions (Section 18):

  1. Supervision: The Controller supervises certifying authorities' activities.
  2. Certification of Public Keys: He certifies public keys.
  3. Rules and Standards: The Controller establishes rules and standards for certifying authorities.
  4. Qualifications and Experience: He specifies qualifications and experience required for certifying authority employees.
  5. Accounting Procedures: The Controller outlines accounting procedures.
  6. Auditor Appointments: He determines auditor appointment terms and conditions.
  7. Business and Dealings: Supervision of authorities' business and dealings.
  8. Electronic System Facilitation: He facilitates electronic system establishment, jointly or solely.
  9. Records and Duties: Maintenance of certifying authorities' particulars and specification of officers' duties.
  10. Conflict Resolution: Resolution of conflicts between authorities and subscribers.
  11. Official Documents: All official documents and information issued by authorities bear the Controller's office seal.

Licensing for Electronic Signatures as per the Information Technology Act, 2000:

Obtaining a License: To issue an electronic signature, obtaining a license certificate is mandatory. Section 21 of the Act outlines the process, requiring applicants to submit an application to the controller. The controller assesses the application and decides whether to accept or reject it. The issued license is valid for a duration prescribed by the central government, transferable, heritable, and governed by government-specified terms and conditions.

Application Requirements (Section 22):

  1. Certificate of Practice Statement.
  2. Applicant's Identity Proof.
  3. Payment of Rs. 25,000 in fees.
  4. Any other documents specified by the central government.

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License Renewal:

Section 23 allows for license renewal by submitting an application at least 45 days before the license expires, along with a fee of Rs. 25,000.

Suspension Grounds (Section 24):

A license can be suspended based on specified grounds, but no certifying authority can suspend it without giving the applicant an opportunity to be heard. Suspension grounds include:

  1. False renewal application with fabricated information.
  2. Non-compliance with license terms and conditions.
  3. Failure to adhere to Act provisions.
  4. Non-compliance with the procedure in Section 30.

The Controller must publish the suspension notice in maintained records and data.

Powers and Functions of Certifying Authorities:

  • Hardware Security: Certifying authorities must employ intrusion-free hardware (Section 30).
  • Security Procedures: They are required to implement security procedures to safeguard electronic signature privacy.
  • Information Publication: Authorities must publish information on their practices, electronic certificates, and certificate status.
  • Reliability: Certifying authorities are expected to maintain reliability in their operations.
  • Digital Certificate Issuance: They have the power to issue electronic certificates (Section 35).
  • Digital Signature Certificate Issuance: Certifying authorities must issue digital signature certificates and certify:
  1. The subscriber possesses a private key and a public key as specified.
  2. The key can create a verifiable digital signature.
  3. All information provided by subscribers is accurate and reliable.
  • Certificate Suspension: Authorities can suspend digital signature certificates for up to 15 days (Section 37).
  • Certificate Revocation: Certificates can be revoked on grounds such as subscriber application, subscriber death, or company winding-up (Section 38).

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Circumstances Where Intermediaries Are Not Liable (Section 79):

The Act defines intermediaries as entities that receive, transmit, or store data or information on behalf of others and provide services like telecom, search engines, internet services, online payment, etc. While intermediaries are typically held liable for misuse of stored data, Section 79 provides exceptions where they are not liable:

  1. Third-Party Information or Communication: Intermediaries are not liable in cases involving third-party information or communication.
  2. Pure Access Providers: If the sole function of the intermediary is to provide access to a communication system without further intervention, they are not held liable.
  3. Non-Initiation, Selection, or Modification: If the intermediary does not initiate transmissions, select receivers, or modify transmitted information, they are not liable.
  4. Diligent Work: Intermediaries that exercise care and due diligence in their operations are exempt from liability.

However, intermediaries cannot claim exemption from liability in the following cases:

  1. Involvement in Unlawful Acts: If intermediaries are involved in unlawful acts through abetting, inducing, threats, or promises.
  2. Failure to Remove Data: If intermediaries do not remove or disable access to data used for unlawful acts as notified by the Central Government.

Penalties and Provisions under the Information Technology Act, 2000:

Penalty for Damaging a Computer System (Section 43):

  • If a person, other than the owner, damages a computer system, they are liable to pay compensation for the damages caused.
  • Reasons for penalties and compensation include:
  1. Downloading or copying information stored in the system.
  2. Introducing viruses to the computer system.
  3. Disrupting the system's functioning.
  4. Denying access to the owner or authorized users.
  5. Tampering or manipulating the computer system.
  6. Destroying, deleting, or altering stored information.
  7. Stealing information from the system

Compensation for Failure to Protect Data (Section 43A):

  • If a corporation or company fails to protect sensitive data in its computer system from unauthorized access or activities, it is liable to pay compensation.

Penalty for Failure to Furnish Required Information (Section 44):

  • Individuals or entities failing to provide requested information, documents, or maintain books of accounts may incur penalties.
  • Penalties range from Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 1,00,000 for reports and documents.
  • A penalty of Rs. 5,000 applies to books of accounts or records.

Residuary Penalty (Section 45):

  • If a person contravenes any Act provision with no specified penalty or compensation, they may be liable to pay a penalty or compensation of Rs. 25,000.

Appellate Tribunal (Section 48):

  • The Telecom Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal under Section 14 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 serves as the appellate tribunal under the Information Technology Act, 2000.
  • Appeals from controller or adjudicating officer orders go to the tribunal, except when parties consent to the order.
  • The tribunal must dispose of appeals within 6 months but may be sooner if agreed upon by parties.
  • Dissatisfied individuals can further appeal to the High Court within 60 days of the tribunal's decision (Section 62).

Powers of the Appellate Tribunal (Section 58):

  • The tribunal is not bound by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and follows principles of natural justice.
  • It possesses powers similar to a civil court under the Code, including:
    • Summoning individuals and compelling their attendance.
    • Examining individuals under oath.
    • Requiring the discovery or production of documents.
    • Accepting evidence on affidavits.
    • Conducting witness examinations.
    • Reviewing decisions.
    • Dismissing applications

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Amendments to the Information Technology Act, 2000:

In response to evolving technology and societal needs, the Information Technology Act, 2000 underwent several amendments:

Amendment of 2008:

  • The 2008 amendment focused on Section 66A of the Act, a controversial provision addressing offensive electronic messages.
  • Section 66A imposed penalties for sending offensive messages that could incite hatred or compromise the nation's integrity and security.
  • The lack of a clear definition for "offensive" led to numerous arrests under this provision.
  • The Supreme Court later struck down Section 66A as unconstitutional in the case of Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015).
  • An additional amendment impacted Section 69A, empowering the government to block internet sites in the interest of national security and integrity.
  • Authorities and intermediaries gained the ability to monitor or decrypt personal information stored with them.

The 2015 Amendment Bill:

  • Introduced to protect citizens' fundamental rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, this bill aimed to amend Section 66A.
  • Section 66A addressed penalties for sending offensive electronic messages, but its lack of clear definitions rendered it unconstitutional.
  • The Supreme Court, in the case of Shreya Singhal, declared it violative of Article 19.

Information Technology Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules, 2018:

  • In 2018, the government issued guidelines to hold intermediaries accountable and regulate their activities.
  • Key provisions included:
    • Requiring intermediaries to publish and update their privacy policies to protect users from unethical content such as pornography, hate speech, and objectionable messages.
    • Mandating the timely provision of information to the government, within 72 hours, for national security purposes.
    • Compelling intermediaries to appoint a 24x7 "nodal person of contact."
    • Encouraging intermediaries to employ technologies that reduce unlawful online activities.
    • Allowing the government to break end-to-end encryption when necessary to trace the origin of harmful messages.

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Landmark Cases:

Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015):

  • Facts: Two girls were arrested for posting comments online regarding the shutdown in Mumbai following the death of a Shiv Sena political leader. They were charged under Section 66A of the Act for posting offensive comments in electronic form. The constitutional validity of Section 66A was challenged, citing infringement of Article 19 of the Constitution.
  • Issue: Is Section 66A constitutionally valid?
  • Judgment: The Court found Section 66A to be ambiguous and vague, infringing upon citizens' freedom of speech and expression. It struck down the entire Section, deeming it violative of Article 19. The Section empowered police officers to arrest individuals for posting offensive content, without defining the term "offensive." This lack of clarity led to police abuse and threatened peace and harmony.

M/S Gujarat Petrosynthese Ltd and Rajendra Prasad Yadav v. Union of India (2014):

  • Facts: The petitioners sought the appointment of a chairperson for the Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) to expedite case resolution and oversee CAT's operations.
  • Issue: Appointment of the CAT chairperson.
  • Judgment: The Court ordered the urgent appointment of a chairperson, taking Section 53 of the Act into account.

Christian Louboutin SAS v. Nakul Bajaj and Ors (2018):

  • Facts: A shoe company filed a suit seeking an injunction against the defendants for using its trademarks and logo.
  • Issue: Applicability of the "safe harbor" protection under Section 79 of the Act.
  • Judgment: The Court noted that the defendant was not an intermediary; their website served as a platform for various product suppliers and promoted vendors. E-commerce platforms differ from intermediaries and the protections granted to them under Section 79. The Court ruled that intermediaries must exercise due diligence and not infringe trademark rights. They should verify the authenticity and genuineness of products offered by merchants. Negligent handling of intellectual property rights (IPR) or incitement of unlawful activities would disqualify intermediaries from safe harbor protection. The Court also referenced intermediary guidelines prohibiting the violation of anyone's intellectual property rights while displaying content on their websites.

Questions of IT Act 2000 for Practice:

  1. When IT Act 2000 came into effect?
    1. October 17, 2000
    2. October 17, 2001
    3. November 11, 2000
    4. November 11, 2001
  2. How many schedules are there in IT Act 2000?
    1. 3
    2. 4
    3. 6
    4. 2
  3. Which is the Act which provides legal framework for e-Governance in India
    1. IT (amendment) Act 2008
    2. Indian Penal Code
    3. IT Act 2000
    4. None of the above
  4. Which section of IT Act deals with the legal recognition of electronic records?
    1. Section 2
    2. Section 5
    3. Section 6
    4. Section 4
  5. What is/are component of IT Act 2000 ?
    1. Legal Recognition to Digital Signatures
    2. Regulation of Certification Authorities.
    3. Digital Certificates
    4. All the above
  6. The section deals with legal recognition of digital signature
    1. Section 3
    2. Section 5
    3. Section 6
    4. Section 4
  7. The section deals with the use of electronic records and digital signature in Government and its agencies
    1. Section 3
    2. Section 5
    3. Section 6
    4. Section 7
  8. Major amendments to IT Act 2000 was introduced in the form of IT (amendment) Act 2008, which came into effect on

    1. 01 June 2008
    2. 27 October 2009
    3. 27 October 2008
    4. 03 July 2009
  9. IT Act 2000 amended various sections of which of the following Acts?
    1. Indian Penal Code 1860
    2. Reserve Bank of India Act 1934
    3. Indian Evidence Act 1872 & Bankers Book Evidence Act 1891
    4. All of the above
  10. Which among following Act is not ammended in Information Technology Act 2000 ?
    1. The Bankers Books Evidence Act, 1891
    2. BSNL IT Policy
    3. RBI Act 1934.
    4. The Indian Evidence Act, 1872
  11. Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA) work under ?
    1. Prime Minister office
    2. Reserve Bank of India
    3. Ministry of Communication & IT
    4. autonomous body
  12. Which Act in India focuses on data privacy and information technology?
    1. Banking Regulation Act 1949
    2. IT Act 2000
    3. Indian Penal Code
    4. IT (amendment) Act 2008
  13. Which section of IT Act deals with the appointment of Controller of certifying authorities
    1. Section 17
    2. Section 15
    3. Section 10
    4. Section 5
  14. Which section of IT Act 2000 deals with the punishment for cheating by impersonation by using computer resources?
    1. Section 66D
    2. Section 66C
    3. Section 66B
    4. Section 66F
  15. The following punishment is mentioned in which section of IT Act 2000 '3 years of imprisonment and/or 5 lakh repees penalty for first conviction & 5 years of imprisonment and/or 10 lakh rupees penalty
    1. Section 67

    2. Section 66

    3. Section 65

    4. Section 64

  16. Which section of IT Act deals with Hacking of computer systems and its penalties?
    1. Section 65
    2. Section 66
    3. Section 62
    4. Section 67
  17. What is the punishment for hacking of computers?
    1. Three year imprisonment or 10 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Life Imprisonment
    3. Three year imprisonment or 5 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. Three year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
  18. Which section of IT Act deals with Cyber terrorism?
    1. Section 66C
    2. Section 66B
    3. Section 66F
    4. Section 66A
  19. Which section of IT Act was invalidated by Supreme Court of India
    1. Section 66F
    2. Section 66B
    3. Section 66D
    4. Section 66A
  20. The date on which Supreme Court of India invalidated Section 66A of IT Act 2000:
    1. 24.03.2015
    2. 31.03.2015
    3. 01.01.2015
    4. 01.06.2015
  21. What is the penalty for publishing images of a person's private parts without consent, as per IT Act 2000?
    1. 5 years imprisonment or 5 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Life imprisonment
    3. 3 years imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. None of the above
  22. What is the punishment for identity theft in IT Act?
    1. Two year imprisonment or 1 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Three year imprisonment or 1 lakh rupees penalty or both
    3. Three year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. None of the above
  23. What is the penalty for destroying computer source code?
    1. Three year imprisonment or 3 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Two year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
    3. Three year imprisonment or 5 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. Three year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
  24. Which are the sections of IT Act applicable for Cyber pornography?
    1. 66, 66A, 66B
    2. 67, 67A, 67B
    3. 67, 67C, 67D
    4. None of the above
  25. Which section of IT Act deals with Child pornography?
    1. Section 67F
    2. Section 67D
    3. Section 67C
    4. Section 67B
  26. What is the maximum penalty for damage to Computer, Computer systems, unauthorized access, download of data, infecting with virus, denial of access etc as per Section 43
    1. Rs. 50 lakh
    2. Rs.1 crore
    3. Rs. 5 crore
    4. Rs.75 lakh
  27. Which section of IT Act 2000 propose a punishment of life imprisonment?
    1. Section 66F
    2. Section 66C
    3. Section 66B
    4. Section 66A
  28. Which are the section of the IT Act deals with Credit card fraud?
    1. 42,  67, 67A, 67B
    2. 66, 66C, 66D
    3. 43, 66, 66C, 66D
    4. None of the above
  29. Which of the following is an example of Intellectual property ?
    1. Patent
    2. Trade Marks
    3. Copyright
    4. All of above
  30. What is the time limit for filing appeal against the order of Cyber appellate tribunal?
    1. 30 days
    2. 90 days
    3. 60 days
    4. 45 days

Conclusion:

The IT Act 2000 and its subsequent amendments have played a crucial role in regulating and governing various aspects of the digital landscape in India. It has helped facilitate e-commerce, secure electronic transactions, and combat cybercrimes in the country.

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InformationTechnology Act, 2000 for Judiciary Preparation (Download Notes)

Author : Yogricha

January 11, 2024

SHARE

Overview:  Information Technology Act, 2000 is a part of prelims and mains syllabus for a lot of state judiciary exams and in order to score better in your judiciary exams. In seceral judiciary exams like Delhi Judiciary, Bihar Judiciary, Madhya Pradesh Judiciary and other Judiciary exams you must study IT Act in totality. For your overall preparation of Information Technology Act, 2000 you must make your own notes and short points for revision. This article will help you a lot in your preparation. Read this blog completely and download notes. You can also download the practice test in order to test your preparation.

In this article we will cover:

  • Important sections of IT Act, 2000
  • Notes of Information Technology Act, 2000 for Judiciary Preparation
  • Practice Questions for Judiciary
  • Amendments to the Information Technology Act, 200

Download notes on Abitration and Concilliation Act

Important sections of IT Act, 2000 for Judiciary Exams

  1. Section 3A gives the conditions of a reliable electronic signature. 
  2. Government can anytime make rules for electronic signatures according to Section 10.
  3. Section 17 talks about the appointment of the controller, deputy controllers, assistant controllers, and other employees of certifying authorities.
  4. Section 18, provides functions of the Controller of certifying authority.
  5. Section 21 provides that any such license can be obtained by making an application to the controller.
  6. The authorities can suspend the certificate of digital signature for not more than 15 days as per Section 37.
  7.  damages by way of compensation is given in Section 43
  8. Attempting Unauthorized Alteration of Computer Resources - Section 65
  9. Attempted Unauthorized Access to Computer Data - Section 66
  10. Imposing Penalties for Misappropriation of Stolen Information from Computers or Electronic Devices - Section 66B
  11. Imposing Penalties for Identity Theft - Section 66C
  12. Imposing Penalties for Accessing Personal Data Through Deceptive Computer Use - Section 66D
  13. Imposing Penalties for Violation of Privacy - Section 66E
  14. Imposing Penalties for Cyber Terrorism - Section 66F
  15. Provisions Regarding Publication of Offensive Material - Section 67
  16. Imposing Penalties for Publishing or Circulating Sexually Explicit Content Through Electronic Means - Section 67A
  17. Publishing or Broadcasting Inappropriate Material Involving Children - Section 67B
  18. Imposing Penalties for Mediating Information Disruption or Blockage - Section 67C
  19. Provisions for Unauthorized Access to Secured Computers - Section 70
  20. Unauthorized Data Disclosure or Alteration - Section 71
  21. Provisions Concerning Privacy and Mutual Trust - Section 72
  22. Provisions Relating to Breach of Protocol Terms - Section 72
  23. Disclosure of Forged Digital Signatures - Section 73
  24. The Information Technology Act grants Inspector-level police officers the authority to investigate these cases under Section 78.
  25. Clarification of Key Terminology: Section 2(1) of the Act elucidates various terms utilized within the Act, such as cyber cafes, computer systems, digital signatures, electronic records, data, asymmetric cryptosystems, and more.
  26. Legitimacy of Electronic Transactions: Section 10A safeguards all transactions and contracts executed through electronic means, deeming them valid.
  27. Recognition of Foreign Certifying Authorities: Section 19 of the Act acknowledges foreign certifying authorities and their role in electronic authentication.

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Notes of Information Technology Act, 2000 for Judiciary Preparation

Introduction

The Information Technology Act, 2000, often referred to as the IT Act 2000, is a landmark legislation in India that has played a pivotal role in shaping the country's digital landscape. Enacted on October 17, 2000, this act is the primary legal framework governing electronic commerce, electronic records, and digital signatures in India. It aims to provide legal recognition for electronic documents, facilitate e-governance, and combat cybercrimes.

Key Provisions:

  1. Legal Recognition of Electronic Records: One of the fundamental aspects of the IT Act 2000 is its provision for the legal recognition of electronic records. It states that, unless otherwise agreed upon, contracts may be expressed through electronic communication, granting them legal validity and enforceability.
  2. Digital Signatures: The Act acknowledges the importance of digital signatures in electronic transactions. It defines the concept and provides legal recognition for electronic records and digital signatures. Digital signatures are used to ensure the integrity of electronic records and authenticate the identity of the signatory.
  3. Cybercrimes and Penalties: To combat cybercrimes and protect digital assets, the IT Act 2000 prescribes penalties for various offenses. These offenses include unauthorized access to computer systems, data theft, and the dissemination of malicious code. Penalties range from fines to imprisonment, depending on the severity of the offense.
  4. Data Protection: The Act addresses issues related to data protection and privacy. It requires organizations handling sensitive personal data to implement security measures to protect this information. Any breach of data privacy can result in significant legal consequences.
  5. Cyber Appellate Tribunal: The IT Act 2000 establishes a Cyber Appellate Tribunal, responsible for hearing appeals against orders issued by the Controller of Certifying Authorities. This tribunal plays a crucial role in ensuring compliance with digital signature regulations.
  6. Electronic Signatures: The Act also recognizes electronic signatures as valid means of authenticating electronic records. It specifies that a subscriber can authenticate any electronic record using an electronic signature or electronic authentication method specified in the Second Schedule of the Act.

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Impact and Significance:

  1. E-Governance: The IT Act 2000 has paved the way for e-governance initiatives in India. It has allowed government agencies to transition from paper-based processes to digital platforms, making public services more efficient and accessible.
  2. Electronic Commerce: The Act has facilitated the growth of electronic commerce in India. It has created a legal framework for online contracts, digital transactions, and electronic signatures, boosting the country's digital economy.
  3. Cybersecurity: In an increasingly interconnected world, the IT Act 2000 has become crucial in addressing cybersecurity challenges. It equips law enforcement agencies with tools to combat cybercrimes effectively.
  4. Data Privacy: With the Act's provisions on data protection and privacy, individuals and organizations are more aware of their responsibilities regarding the handling of personal data, contributing to enhanced data privacy practices.

Applicability of the Information Technology Act, 2000:

As per Section 1, the Act is applicable across the entire nation, including the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Furthermore, the Act's jurisdiction extends extraterritorially, meaning it applies to individuals committing offenses outside the country if the source of the offense, such as a computer or similar device, is located in India. In such cases, irrespective of their nationality, the individual will be subject to punishment under the Act.

However, the Act does not pertain to documents outlined in Schedule 1, which include:

  1. Any negotiable instrument, except a cheque as defined in Section 13 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
  2. Any power of attorney as per Section 1A of the Powers of Attorney Act, 1882.
  3. Various types of trusts according to Section 3 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.
  4. Wills, including testamentary dispositions, governed by the Indian Succession Act, 1925.
  5. Contracts or sale deeds related to immovable property.

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Objectives of the Information Technology Act, 2000:

This Act was enacted to address the complexities of e-commerce, digital signatures, and related matters. It aims to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Protection of Electronic Transactions: The Act ensures the protection of all transactions conducted through electronic means.
  2. Legal Recognition of E-Communication: With e-commerce reducing the reliance on paperwork for communication, the Act provides legal protection to electronic communication and information exchange.
  3. Safeguarding Digital Signatures: The Act safeguards digital signatures used for legal authentication.
  4. Regulation of Intermediaries: It establishes guidelines for intermediaries and monitors their powers.
  5. Offense Definitions: The Act defines various offenses related to the data privacy of citizens, thereby safeguarding their data.
  6. Regulation of Sensitive Data: It regulates and protects sensitive data held by social media and other electronic intermediaries.
  7. Recognition of Electronic Books of Accounts: The Act grants recognition to electronic books of accounts regulated by the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

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Features of the Information Technology Act, 2000:

The Information Technology Act, 2000 encompasses several key features, including:

  1. Model Law Basis: The Act is rooted in the Model Law on e-commerce adopted by UNCITRAL, ensuring a globally recognized framework.
  2. Extra-territorial Jurisdiction: The Act holds extraterritorial jurisdiction, allowing its application to offenses committed outside the country if certain conditions are met.
  3. Terminology Definitions: It defines various essential terms used throughout the Act, such as cyber cafes, computer systems, digital signatures, electronic records, data, asymmetric cryptosystems, etc, detailed in Section 2(1).
  4. Validity of Electronic Transactions: The Act safeguards all transactions and contracts conducted via electronic means, affirming their validity (Section 10A).
  5. Recognition of Digital Signatures: It recognizes digital signatures and outlines authentication methods.
  6. Controller Appointment and Powers: The Act includes provisions pertaining to the appointment of the Controller and delineates the Controller's powers.
  7. Recognition of Foreign Certifying Authorities: Section 19 acknowledges foreign certifying authorities.
  8. Penalties for System Damage: The Act specifies penalties for individuals who damage a computer system owned by someone other than themselves.
  9. Establishment of Appellate Tribunal: An Appellate Tribunal, established under the Act, handles appeals from decisions made by the Controller or other Adjudicating officers.
  10. High Court Appeal: Appeals from the tribunal's decisions can be pursued further in the High Court.
  11. Offense Definitions and Punishments: The Act defines various offenses related to data and prescribes their punishments.
  12. Intermediary Liability Protection: It delineates circumstances under which intermediaries are not held liable, even in cases of data privacy breaches.
  13. Cyber Regulation Advisory Committee: Under the Act, a Cyber Regulation Advisory Committee is instituted to advise the Central Government on matters concerning e-commerce and digital signatures.

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Electronic Records and Signatures in Accordance with the Information Technology Act, 2000:

Electronic Records Definition: As per Section 2(1)(t) of the Act, electronic records encompass any data, image, record, or file transmitted through electronic means.

Electronic Signature: Section 2(1)(ta) of the Act defines electronic signatures as any signatures used to authenticate electronic records in the form of a digital signature. Authentication is achieved through asymmetric cryptosystems and hash functions, detailed in Section 3 of the Act.

Conditions for Reliable Electronic Signatures (Section 3A):

  1. Linked to Signatory/Authenticator: Reliable electronic signatures are those linked to the signatory or authenticator.
  2. Under Signatory's Control: The signatures must be under the control of the signatory during the signing process.
  3. Detectable Alterations: Any alterations to the signature or authenticated information must be detectable post-fixation or alteration.
  4. Detectable Alterations: Alterations made to authenticated information must also be detectable.
  5. Additional Conditions: The Central Government may specify additional conditions.

Rules for Electronic Signatures: Section 10 empowers the government to establish rules governing electronic signatures.

Attribution of Electronic Records (Section 11):

An electronic record is attributed if sent by the originator or another person on their behalf. Receipt acknowledgment is necessary unless specified otherwise (Section 12).

Dispatch and Receipt (Section 13):

  1. Addressee's Computer Resource: Receipt occurs when the addressee provides a computer resource.
  2. Entry into Designated Resource: Entry into the designated computer resource signifies receipt.
  3. Retrieval by Addressee: In cases involving a different computer system, receipt happens upon retrieval by the addressee.
  4. Unspecified Resource: If the addressee doesn't specify a computer resource, receipt occurs when the record enters any of the addressee's computer sources.

Certifying Authorities:

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Controller's Appointment (Section 17):

The Controller, deputy controllers, assistant controllers, and other employees of certifying authorities are appointed under this section. Deputy controllers and assistant controllers function under the Controller's guidance, with their terms, qualifications, experience, and conditions of service determined by the Central Government. The head office location of the Controller is also decided by the Central Government.

Controller's Functions (Section 18):

  1. Supervision: The Controller supervises certifying authorities' activities.
  2. Certification of Public Keys: He certifies public keys.
  3. Rules and Standards: The Controller establishes rules and standards for certifying authorities.
  4. Qualifications and Experience: He specifies qualifications and experience required for certifying authority employees.
  5. Accounting Procedures: The Controller outlines accounting procedures.
  6. Auditor Appointments: He determines auditor appointment terms and conditions.
  7. Business and Dealings: Supervision of authorities' business and dealings.
  8. Electronic System Facilitation: He facilitates electronic system establishment, jointly or solely.
  9. Records and Duties: Maintenance of certifying authorities' particulars and specification of officers' duties.
  10. Conflict Resolution: Resolution of conflicts between authorities and subscribers.
  11. Official Documents: All official documents and information issued by authorities bear the Controller's office seal.

Licensing for Electronic Signatures as per the Information Technology Act, 2000:

Obtaining a License: To issue an electronic signature, obtaining a license certificate is mandatory. Section 21 of the Act outlines the process, requiring applicants to submit an application to the controller. The controller assesses the application and decides whether to accept or reject it. The issued license is valid for a duration prescribed by the central government, transferable, heritable, and governed by government-specified terms and conditions.

Application Requirements (Section 22):

  1. Certificate of Practice Statement.
  2. Applicant's Identity Proof.
  3. Payment of Rs. 25,000 in fees.
  4. Any other documents specified by the central government.

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License Renewal:

Section 23 allows for license renewal by submitting an application at least 45 days before the license expires, along with a fee of Rs. 25,000.

Suspension Grounds (Section 24):

A license can be suspended based on specified grounds, but no certifying authority can suspend it without giving the applicant an opportunity to be heard. Suspension grounds include:

  1. False renewal application with fabricated information.
  2. Non-compliance with license terms and conditions.
  3. Failure to adhere to Act provisions.
  4. Non-compliance with the procedure in Section 30.

The Controller must publish the suspension notice in maintained records and data.

Powers and Functions of Certifying Authorities:

  • Hardware Security: Certifying authorities must employ intrusion-free hardware (Section 30).
  • Security Procedures: They are required to implement security procedures to safeguard electronic signature privacy.
  • Information Publication: Authorities must publish information on their practices, electronic certificates, and certificate status.
  • Reliability: Certifying authorities are expected to maintain reliability in their operations.
  • Digital Certificate Issuance: They have the power to issue electronic certificates (Section 35).
  • Digital Signature Certificate Issuance: Certifying authorities must issue digital signature certificates and certify:
  1. The subscriber possesses a private key and a public key as specified.
  2. The key can create a verifiable digital signature.
  3. All information provided by subscribers is accurate and reliable.
  • Certificate Suspension: Authorities can suspend digital signature certificates for up to 15 days (Section 37).
  • Certificate Revocation: Certificates can be revoked on grounds such as subscriber application, subscriber death, or company winding-up (Section 38).

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Circumstances Where Intermediaries Are Not Liable (Section 79):

The Act defines intermediaries as entities that receive, transmit, or store data or information on behalf of others and provide services like telecom, search engines, internet services, online payment, etc. While intermediaries are typically held liable for misuse of stored data, Section 79 provides exceptions where they are not liable:

  1. Third-Party Information or Communication: Intermediaries are not liable in cases involving third-party information or communication.
  2. Pure Access Providers: If the sole function of the intermediary is to provide access to a communication system without further intervention, they are not held liable.
  3. Non-Initiation, Selection, or Modification: If the intermediary does not initiate transmissions, select receivers, or modify transmitted information, they are not liable.
  4. Diligent Work: Intermediaries that exercise care and due diligence in their operations are exempt from liability.

However, intermediaries cannot claim exemption from liability in the following cases:

  1. Involvement in Unlawful Acts: If intermediaries are involved in unlawful acts through abetting, inducing, threats, or promises.
  2. Failure to Remove Data: If intermediaries do not remove or disable access to data used for unlawful acts as notified by the Central Government.

Penalties and Provisions under the Information Technology Act, 2000:

Penalty for Damaging a Computer System (Section 43):

  • If a person, other than the owner, damages a computer system, they are liable to pay compensation for the damages caused.
  • Reasons for penalties and compensation include:
  1. Downloading or copying information stored in the system.
  2. Introducing viruses to the computer system.
  3. Disrupting the system's functioning.
  4. Denying access to the owner or authorized users.
  5. Tampering or manipulating the computer system.
  6. Destroying, deleting, or altering stored information.
  7. Stealing information from the system

Compensation for Failure to Protect Data (Section 43A):

  • If a corporation or company fails to protect sensitive data in its computer system from unauthorized access or activities, it is liable to pay compensation.

Penalty for Failure to Furnish Required Information (Section 44):

  • Individuals or entities failing to provide requested information, documents, or maintain books of accounts may incur penalties.
  • Penalties range from Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 1,00,000 for reports and documents.
  • A penalty of Rs. 5,000 applies to books of accounts or records.

Residuary Penalty (Section 45):

  • If a person contravenes any Act provision with no specified penalty or compensation, they may be liable to pay a penalty or compensation of Rs. 25,000.

Appellate Tribunal (Section 48):

  • The Telecom Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal under Section 14 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 serves as the appellate tribunal under the Information Technology Act, 2000.
  • Appeals from controller or adjudicating officer orders go to the tribunal, except when parties consent to the order.
  • The tribunal must dispose of appeals within 6 months but may be sooner if agreed upon by parties.
  • Dissatisfied individuals can further appeal to the High Court within 60 days of the tribunal's decision (Section 62).

Powers of the Appellate Tribunal (Section 58):

  • The tribunal is not bound by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and follows principles of natural justice.
  • It possesses powers similar to a civil court under the Code, including:
    • Summoning individuals and compelling their attendance.
    • Examining individuals under oath.
    • Requiring the discovery or production of documents.
    • Accepting evidence on affidavits.
    • Conducting witness examinations.
    • Reviewing decisions.
    • Dismissing applications

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Amendments to the Information Technology Act, 2000:

In response to evolving technology and societal needs, the Information Technology Act, 2000 underwent several amendments:

Amendment of 2008:

  • The 2008 amendment focused on Section 66A of the Act, a controversial provision addressing offensive electronic messages.
  • Section 66A imposed penalties for sending offensive messages that could incite hatred or compromise the nation's integrity and security.
  • The lack of a clear definition for "offensive" led to numerous arrests under this provision.
  • The Supreme Court later struck down Section 66A as unconstitutional in the case of Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015).
  • An additional amendment impacted Section 69A, empowering the government to block internet sites in the interest of national security and integrity.
  • Authorities and intermediaries gained the ability to monitor or decrypt personal information stored with them.

The 2015 Amendment Bill:

  • Introduced to protect citizens' fundamental rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, this bill aimed to amend Section 66A.
  • Section 66A addressed penalties for sending offensive electronic messages, but its lack of clear definitions rendered it unconstitutional.
  • The Supreme Court, in the case of Shreya Singhal, declared it violative of Article 19.

Information Technology Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules, 2018:

  • In 2018, the government issued guidelines to hold intermediaries accountable and regulate their activities.
  • Key provisions included:
    • Requiring intermediaries to publish and update their privacy policies to protect users from unethical content such as pornography, hate speech, and objectionable messages.
    • Mandating the timely provision of information to the government, within 72 hours, for national security purposes.
    • Compelling intermediaries to appoint a 24x7 "nodal person of contact."
    • Encouraging intermediaries to employ technologies that reduce unlawful online activities.
    • Allowing the government to break end-to-end encryption when necessary to trace the origin of harmful messages.

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Landmark Cases:

Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015):

  • Facts: Two girls were arrested for posting comments online regarding the shutdown in Mumbai following the death of a Shiv Sena political leader. They were charged under Section 66A of the Act for posting offensive comments in electronic form. The constitutional validity of Section 66A was challenged, citing infringement of Article 19 of the Constitution.
  • Issue: Is Section 66A constitutionally valid?
  • Judgment: The Court found Section 66A to be ambiguous and vague, infringing upon citizens' freedom of speech and expression. It struck down the entire Section, deeming it violative of Article 19. The Section empowered police officers to arrest individuals for posting offensive content, without defining the term "offensive." This lack of clarity led to police abuse and threatened peace and harmony.

M/S Gujarat Petrosynthese Ltd and Rajendra Prasad Yadav v. Union of India (2014):

  • Facts: The petitioners sought the appointment of a chairperson for the Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) to expedite case resolution and oversee CAT's operations.
  • Issue: Appointment of the CAT chairperson.
  • Judgment: The Court ordered the urgent appointment of a chairperson, taking Section 53 of the Act into account.

Christian Louboutin SAS v. Nakul Bajaj and Ors (2018):

  • Facts: A shoe company filed a suit seeking an injunction against the defendants for using its trademarks and logo.
  • Issue: Applicability of the "safe harbor" protection under Section 79 of the Act.
  • Judgment: The Court noted that the defendant was not an intermediary; their website served as a platform for various product suppliers and promoted vendors. E-commerce platforms differ from intermediaries and the protections granted to them under Section 79. The Court ruled that intermediaries must exercise due diligence and not infringe trademark rights. They should verify the authenticity and genuineness of products offered by merchants. Negligent handling of intellectual property rights (IPR) or incitement of unlawful activities would disqualify intermediaries from safe harbor protection. The Court also referenced intermediary guidelines prohibiting the violation of anyone's intellectual property rights while displaying content on their websites.

Questions of IT Act 2000 for Practice:

  1. When IT Act 2000 came into effect?
    1. October 17, 2000
    2. October 17, 2001
    3. November 11, 2000
    4. November 11, 2001
  2. How many schedules are there in IT Act 2000?
    1. 3
    2. 4
    3. 6
    4. 2
  3. Which is the Act which provides legal framework for e-Governance in India
    1. IT (amendment) Act 2008
    2. Indian Penal Code
    3. IT Act 2000
    4. None of the above
  4. Which section of IT Act deals with the legal recognition of electronic records?
    1. Section 2
    2. Section 5
    3. Section 6
    4. Section 4
  5. What is/are component of IT Act 2000 ?
    1. Legal Recognition to Digital Signatures
    2. Regulation of Certification Authorities.
    3. Digital Certificates
    4. All the above
  6. The section deals with legal recognition of digital signature
    1. Section 3
    2. Section 5
    3. Section 6
    4. Section 4
  7. The section deals with the use of electronic records and digital signature in Government and its agencies
    1. Section 3
    2. Section 5
    3. Section 6
    4. Section 7
  8. Major amendments to IT Act 2000 was introduced in the form of IT (amendment) Act 2008, which came into effect on

    1. 01 June 2008
    2. 27 October 2009
    3. 27 October 2008
    4. 03 July 2009
  9. IT Act 2000 amended various sections of which of the following Acts?
    1. Indian Penal Code 1860
    2. Reserve Bank of India Act 1934
    3. Indian Evidence Act 1872 & Bankers Book Evidence Act 1891
    4. All of the above
  10. Which among following Act is not ammended in Information Technology Act 2000 ?
    1. The Bankers Books Evidence Act, 1891
    2. BSNL IT Policy
    3. RBI Act 1934.
    4. The Indian Evidence Act, 1872
  11. Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA) work under ?
    1. Prime Minister office
    2. Reserve Bank of India
    3. Ministry of Communication & IT
    4. autonomous body
  12. Which Act in India focuses on data privacy and information technology?
    1. Banking Regulation Act 1949
    2. IT Act 2000
    3. Indian Penal Code
    4. IT (amendment) Act 2008
  13. Which section of IT Act deals with the appointment of Controller of certifying authorities
    1. Section 17
    2. Section 15
    3. Section 10
    4. Section 5
  14. Which section of IT Act 2000 deals with the punishment for cheating by impersonation by using computer resources?
    1. Section 66D
    2. Section 66C
    3. Section 66B
    4. Section 66F
  15. The following punishment is mentioned in which section of IT Act 2000 '3 years of imprisonment and/or 5 lakh repees penalty for first conviction & 5 years of imprisonment and/or 10 lakh rupees penalty
    1. Section 67

    2. Section 66

    3. Section 65

    4. Section 64

  16. Which section of IT Act deals with Hacking of computer systems and its penalties?
    1. Section 65
    2. Section 66
    3. Section 62
    4. Section 67
  17. What is the punishment for hacking of computers?
    1. Three year imprisonment or 10 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Life Imprisonment
    3. Three year imprisonment or 5 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. Three year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
  18. Which section of IT Act deals with Cyber terrorism?
    1. Section 66C
    2. Section 66B
    3. Section 66F
    4. Section 66A
  19. Which section of IT Act was invalidated by Supreme Court of India
    1. Section 66F
    2. Section 66B
    3. Section 66D
    4. Section 66A
  20. The date on which Supreme Court of India invalidated Section 66A of IT Act 2000:
    1. 24.03.2015
    2. 31.03.2015
    3. 01.01.2015
    4. 01.06.2015
  21. What is the penalty for publishing images of a person's private parts without consent, as per IT Act 2000?
    1. 5 years imprisonment or 5 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Life imprisonment
    3. 3 years imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. None of the above
  22. What is the punishment for identity theft in IT Act?
    1. Two year imprisonment or 1 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Three year imprisonment or 1 lakh rupees penalty or both
    3. Three year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. None of the above
  23. What is the penalty for destroying computer source code?
    1. Three year imprisonment or 3 lakh rupees penalty or both
    2. Two year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
    3. Three year imprisonment or 5 lakh rupees penalty or both
    4. Three year imprisonment or 2 lakh rupees penalty or both
  24. Which are the sections of IT Act applicable for Cyber pornography?
    1. 66, 66A, 66B
    2. 67, 67A, 67B
    3. 67, 67C, 67D
    4. None of the above
  25. Which section of IT Act deals with Child pornography?
    1. Section 67F
    2. Section 67D
    3. Section 67C
    4. Section 67B
  26. What is the maximum penalty for damage to Computer, Computer systems, unauthorized access, download of data, infecting with virus, denial of access etc as per Section 43
    1. Rs. 50 lakh
    2. Rs.1 crore
    3. Rs. 5 crore
    4. Rs.75 lakh
  27. Which section of IT Act 2000 propose a punishment of life imprisonment?
    1. Section 66F
    2. Section 66C
    3. Section 66B
    4. Section 66A
  28. Which are the section of the IT Act deals with Credit card fraud?
    1. 42,  67, 67A, 67B
    2. 66, 66C, 66D
    3. 43, 66, 66C, 66D
    4. None of the above
  29. Which of the following is an example of Intellectual property ?
    1. Patent
    2. Trade Marks
    3. Copyright
    4. All of above
  30. What is the time limit for filing appeal against the order of Cyber appellate tribunal?
    1. 30 days
    2. 90 days
    3. 60 days
    4. 45 days

Conclusion:

The IT Act 2000 and its subsequent amendments have played a crucial role in regulating and governing various aspects of the digital landscape in India. It has helped facilitate e-commerce, secure electronic transactions, and combat cybercrimes in the country.

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