CBSE Class 12 Basics of Financial Mathematics 2024

Author : Shashwat Srivastava

Updated On : February 12, 2024

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Reader's Digest: If you're a CBSE Class 12 student or someone looking to grasp the fundamentals of financial mathematics, you're in the right place. Understanding financial math is crucial in today's world, whether you're planning your own finances or exploring career options in economics, finance, or business. So read on!

CBSE Class 12 now includes Financial Mathematics within its Applied Maths Syllabus, designed to enhance mathematical skills in the realm of finance.

This comprehensive guide delves into the specifics of CBSE Class 12 Basics of Financial Mathematics. Unpacking the significance of this subject, we'll explore the core syllabus topics and what to expect in exams. Additionally, we'll provide valuable preparation tips, study materials, and sample questions.

Whether you're familiar with finance or find it alien, this guide equips you with the essential knowledge and strategies to excel in CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics. So let's begin!

Key Contents:
• Introduction to CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics.
• Significance and real-world applications.
• Key concepts and practical importance.
• Multidisciplinary approach and logical reasoning.
• Everyday applications and CBSE Class 12 syllabus.
• Exam format and preparation tips.
• Recommended study materials and sample questions.

What is Financial Mathematics?

Financial Mathematics in CBSE Class 12 serves as a crucial foundation for understanding mathematical concepts related to money and finances. It applies math to real-life financial scenarios, making it an essential part of your education. Here's a detailed breakdown:

• Application of Math to Finances: Financial Mathematics, within the CBSE Class 12 curriculum, involves using mathematical methods to solve various financial problems. It's all about making sense of numbers and calculations within the realm of money.

• Key Concepts: In CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics, you'll encounter several key concepts, such as:

• Perpetuity
• Sinking Funds
• Valuation of Bonds (Present value approach and Relative price approach)
• Calculation of EMI (Equated Monthly Installment)
• Calculation of returns, nominal rate of return, effective rate of interest
• Compound annual growth rate
• Understanding Stocks, Shares, and Debentures
• Linear method of depreciation
• Practical Significance: Understanding financial math is not just about acing exams. It's about being financially savvy in real life. When you grasp these concepts, you'll be equipped to:

• Calculate taxes effectively
• Determine the present and future values of assets
• Predict future asset values
• Gain insights into stocks and shares
• Comprehend asset appreciation and depreciation
• Holistic Approach: CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics is not limited to arithmetic. It integrates other areas of mathematics, like algebraic methods, to represent and solve problems. This multidisciplinary approach is essential for solving complex financial scenarios.

• Logical Reasoning: Financial Mathematics also hones your logical reasoning skills. You'll learn to:

• Formulate mathematical arguments
• Create examples and find counterexamples
• Validate equations and financial models
• Everyday Application: These skills are not confined to textbooks; they are applicable to everyday life. You can use financial math to:

• Analyze financial data from sources like BSE and NASDAQ
• Understand how financial math plays a crucial role in everyday financial decisions

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Syllabus

Class 12 Syllabus of Financial Mathematics is contained under unit 7 of the Applied Mathematics syllabus, it encapsulates total of 5 topics that become the foundation of Financial Mathematics that you will be learning in your higher studies.

Some of the topics should be familiar while some will definitely be alien to you until you begin with the preparation. In any case, let us look at CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics topics in detail.

7.1 Perpetuity and Sinking Funds

• Introduction: Understand the essence of perpetuity and sinking fund.
• Calculation: Master the techniques to calculate perpetuity.
• Distinguishing Factors: Differentiate between a sinking fund and a savings account.
• Detailed Analysis: Dive deep into the meanings of both Perpetuity and Sinking Fund.
• Practical Approach: Real-life scenarios where a sinking fund is applied.
• Benefits: Know the key advantages of employing a Sinking Fund.
• Comparison: Weigh the differences and similarities between Sinking Fund and Savings account.

7.3 EMI Calculation

• Conceptual Understanding: Grasp the fundamental idea behind EMI.
• Methods: Learn to calculate EMI using: i) Flat-Rate Method ii) Reducing-Balance Method
• Application: View real-life examples to understand EMI calculations for different loans and asset purchases.

7.4 Rate of Returns and Nominal Rate of Return

• Introduction: Get acquainted with the concept of rate of return and its nominal variant.
• Calculation: Equip yourself with skills to calculate both rate of return and its nominal counterpart.
• Formulas: Understand the formulas essential for Rate of Return and Nominal Rate of Return calculations.

7.5 Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

• Basics: Comprehend the central idea of CAGR.
• Comparison: Differentiate between CAGR and the standard Annual Growth Rate.
• Calculation: Master the art of calculating the Compound Annual Growth Rate.
• Definition & Usage: Delve into the meaning and significance of CAGR, along with its formula.

7.7 Linear Method of Depreciation

• Conceptual Clarity: Define the linear method of depreciation and its nuances.
• Interpretation: Learn to interpret the cost, residual value, and useful lifespan of an asset.
• Calculation: Get proficient in depreciation calculations.
• In-depth Analysis: Understand the formula, advantages, and disadvantages associated with the Linear Method of Depreciation.

With this structured syllabus, students can systematically approach the subject, ensuring comprehensive coverage of all key topics.

What to Expect from Financial Mathematics in CBSE Class 12 Exam?

Financial Mathematics expects you to develop a sound mathematical language and symbolism to communicate and relate everyday experiences mathematically.

In our quarterly, yearly, and half-yearly examinations, we should be ready for some loaded calculations involving some huge numbers. The questions are expected to be straight forward and they might even resemble some from NCERT and reference textbooks.

The questions in CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics test your adaptability to fast yet simple arithmetic with real-life numbers. You should not be afraid of dealing with sums of large numbers. Instead, you should be agile and vigilant for any errors on the part of your calculations.

It also expects you to reinforce logical reasoning skills. You are required to formulate and establish mathematical arguments, frame examples, find counterexamples, validate equations and others.

CBSE Financial Mathematics utilizes the application of other areas of mathematics too in addition to Arithmetic. Areas such as Algebraic methods are used as a means of representation. They are also used as a problem-solving tool in Class 12 Financial Mathematics. It is something that you should expect in the Class 12 Financial Mathematics Examination.

When you are thorough with this topic, you will know how to calculate your taxes. You will know how to find the value of an asset in the present time and based on its current value, you will also be able to predict it for a future date. You will also have developed a sound understanding of shares and Values of Stocks, Appreciation of assets, and their depreciation too.

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Preparation Tips

Preparing for CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics can seem challenging, but with the right approach, you can ace it. Here are some simple yet effective tips to help you succeed:

1. Understand the CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Syllabus:

• Familiarize yourself with the subject syllabus to know what topics to focus on. This understanding is crucial in your CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics journey.
2. Real-Life Examples Are Your Best Friends:

• Financial Mathematics is all about applying math to real-life financial scenarios. Incorporate everyday financial problems into your practice. It's not just about formulas; it's about solving practical money-related challenges.
3. Calculate Real-Life Finances:

• Take a hands-on approach by helping your parents with their taxes, EMIs, or stock shares. These experiences will deepen your understanding of financial concepts and their applications.
4. Reference Books are a Bonus:

• In addition to your CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics textbook, consider using reference books. They provide different perspectives and extra practice questions to hone your skills.
5. Practice Previous Year Papers:

• Solve previous years' CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics papers. This will familiarize you with the exam's format and the types of questions that can be asked. It's also excellent for time management and problem-solving skills.
6. Mental Math Matters:

• Don't overly rely on calculators. Challenge yourself to solve Financial Mathematics problems mentally. This practice improves calculation speed and memory, essential for tackling complex questions.

Remember, CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics is not just about exams; it's about building skills you can use in everyday life. By following these tips, you'll not only excel in your exams but also gain valuable financial knowledge for the future.

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Study Material

To ace the CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics exam, books and notes are your biggest friends and mock papers or previous year papers are your cheerleaders.

Books will help you stay on the right path because subjects such as mathematics have no boundary and you never know when you are reading something outside your syllabus and gathering irrelevant information.

Let us take a look at the list of CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics reference books that you can refer to while preparing for the Financial Mathematics Exam.

• NCERT
• Suncos, Handbook for Mathematics
• Master the NCERT Mathematics

Check Tips: CBSE Class 12 Applied Maths Algebra

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Sample Questions

Practicing sample questions will help you develop an independent idea and understanding of the subject in depth. To help you get an idea about the type of questions that can be asked in the exam, we have provided few sample questions here.

1. Calculate the needed amount that must be invested every year so that the total amount sums up to Rs. 3,00,000 by the end of 10 years. The rate of interest is 10%, compounded annually.
2. Ram makes an investment of Rs. 3,000 for two years. He gets a rate of interest of 12%. Furthermore, calculate the future value of the investment.
3. Radha wants to retire from her job and get hold of Rs. 3,000/month. She wants the money to go to the future generation after she dies. She will earn an interest rate of 8% compounded annually. What is the total amount she will need to achieve the perpetuity goal?
4. Suppose that the rate of discount is 7%. So, how much one must pay to receive Rs. 50 that grows at an annual rate of 5%, forever?
5. Rahul plans on buying a 3-year bond having Rs. 1000 par value at an interest rate of 10%. Find the price at which one can purchase the bond after maturation at par and if Rahul requires the return of 14%.
• Rs. 915
• Rs. 907
• Rs. 902
• Rs. 917.

6. Find the EMI for a property that is mortgaged of principal amount Rs. 5,00,000 at a rate of interest, 3.5% for a period of 10 years.

• Rs. 1657
• Rs. 1647
• Rs. 1523
• Rs. 1547

7. In a bank, an amount of Rs. 20,000 is deposited for one year. The rate of interest is 8% per annum and is compounded semi-annually. What is the effective rate of interest?

• 8 per cent
• 8.08 per cent
• 8.16 per cent
• 8.22 per cent

Key Takeaways

1. Practical Life Skills: Financial Mathematics isn't just for exams; it equips you to handle real-life financial challenges, from taxes to investments.

2. Holistic Learning: It's not just about numbers; it integrates various math concepts, enhancing your problem-solving abilities.

3. Logical Thinking: You'll develop logical reasoning skills, essential for both exams and daily life decision-making.

4. Preparation Tips: Familiarize yourself with the syllabus, practice real-life problems, and utilize reference books for comprehensive learning.

5. Practice Matters: Solving previous year papers and practicing mental math can boost your exam performance.

6. Study Materials: Utilize the recommended reference books and notes to stay on track.

7. Sample Questions: Solve sample questions to deepen your understanding of key topics.

Read about: How to Get Good Marks in Maths Class 12 CBSE

I am stressed over Financial Mathematics? How to get over it?

What if I do badly in Financial Mathematics?

How to attempt CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Sample papers?

How to analyse CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Sample paper Performance?

What if I don't get the marks I'm expecting in Financial Mathematics?

How do I deal with my family's disappointment if my results are not good in CBSE Class 12 Applied Maths?

CBSE Class 12 Basics of Financial Mathematics 2024

Author : Shashwat Srivastava

February 12, 2024

SHARE

Reader's Digest: If you're a CBSE Class 12 student or someone looking to grasp the fundamentals of financial mathematics, you're in the right place. Understanding financial math is crucial in today's world, whether you're planning your own finances or exploring career options in economics, finance, or business. So read on!

CBSE Class 12 now includes Financial Mathematics within its Applied Maths Syllabus, designed to enhance mathematical skills in the realm of finance.

This comprehensive guide delves into the specifics of CBSE Class 12 Basics of Financial Mathematics. Unpacking the significance of this subject, we'll explore the core syllabus topics and what to expect in exams. Additionally, we'll provide valuable preparation tips, study materials, and sample questions.

Whether you're familiar with finance or find it alien, this guide equips you with the essential knowledge and strategies to excel in CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics. So let's begin!

Key Contents:
• Introduction to CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics.
• Significance and real-world applications.
• Key concepts and practical importance.
• Multidisciplinary approach and logical reasoning.
• Everyday applications and CBSE Class 12 syllabus.
• Exam format and preparation tips.
• Recommended study materials and sample questions.

What is Financial Mathematics?

Financial Mathematics in CBSE Class 12 serves as a crucial foundation for understanding mathematical concepts related to money and finances. It applies math to real-life financial scenarios, making it an essential part of your education. Here's a detailed breakdown:

• Application of Math to Finances: Financial Mathematics, within the CBSE Class 12 curriculum, involves using mathematical methods to solve various financial problems. It's all about making sense of numbers and calculations within the realm of money.

• Key Concepts: In CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics, you'll encounter several key concepts, such as:

• Perpetuity
• Sinking Funds
• Valuation of Bonds (Present value approach and Relative price approach)
• Calculation of EMI (Equated Monthly Installment)
• Calculation of returns, nominal rate of return, effective rate of interest
• Compound annual growth rate
• Understanding Stocks, Shares, and Debentures
• Linear method of depreciation
• Practical Significance: Understanding financial math is not just about acing exams. It's about being financially savvy in real life. When you grasp these concepts, you'll be equipped to:

• Calculate taxes effectively
• Determine the present and future values of assets
• Predict future asset values
• Gain insights into stocks and shares
• Comprehend asset appreciation and depreciation
• Holistic Approach: CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics is not limited to arithmetic. It integrates other areas of mathematics, like algebraic methods, to represent and solve problems. This multidisciplinary approach is essential for solving complex financial scenarios.

• Logical Reasoning: Financial Mathematics also hones your logical reasoning skills. You'll learn to:

• Formulate mathematical arguments
• Create examples and find counterexamples
• Validate equations and financial models
• Everyday Application: These skills are not confined to textbooks; they are applicable to everyday life. You can use financial math to:

• Analyze financial data from sources like BSE and NASDAQ
• Understand how financial math plays a crucial role in everyday financial decisions

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Syllabus

Class 12 Syllabus of Financial Mathematics is contained under unit 7 of the Applied Mathematics syllabus, it encapsulates total of 5 topics that become the foundation of Financial Mathematics that you will be learning in your higher studies.

Some of the topics should be familiar while some will definitely be alien to you until you begin with the preparation. In any case, let us look at CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics topics in detail.

7.1 Perpetuity and Sinking Funds

• Introduction: Understand the essence of perpetuity and sinking fund.
• Calculation: Master the techniques to calculate perpetuity.
• Distinguishing Factors: Differentiate between a sinking fund and a savings account.
• Detailed Analysis: Dive deep into the meanings of both Perpetuity and Sinking Fund.
• Practical Approach: Real-life scenarios where a sinking fund is applied.
• Benefits: Know the key advantages of employing a Sinking Fund.
• Comparison: Weigh the differences and similarities between Sinking Fund and Savings account.

7.3 EMI Calculation

• Conceptual Understanding: Grasp the fundamental idea behind EMI.
• Methods: Learn to calculate EMI using: i) Flat-Rate Method ii) Reducing-Balance Method
• Application: View real-life examples to understand EMI calculations for different loans and asset purchases.

7.4 Rate of Returns and Nominal Rate of Return

• Introduction: Get acquainted with the concept of rate of return and its nominal variant.
• Calculation: Equip yourself with skills to calculate both rate of return and its nominal counterpart.
• Formulas: Understand the formulas essential for Rate of Return and Nominal Rate of Return calculations.

7.5 Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

• Basics: Comprehend the central idea of CAGR.
• Comparison: Differentiate between CAGR and the standard Annual Growth Rate.
• Calculation: Master the art of calculating the Compound Annual Growth Rate.
• Definition & Usage: Delve into the meaning and significance of CAGR, along with its formula.

7.7 Linear Method of Depreciation

• Conceptual Clarity: Define the linear method of depreciation and its nuances.
• Interpretation: Learn to interpret the cost, residual value, and useful lifespan of an asset.
• Calculation: Get proficient in depreciation calculations.
• In-depth Analysis: Understand the formula, advantages, and disadvantages associated with the Linear Method of Depreciation.

With this structured syllabus, students can systematically approach the subject, ensuring comprehensive coverage of all key topics.

What to Expect from Financial Mathematics in CBSE Class 12 Exam?

Financial Mathematics expects you to develop a sound mathematical language and symbolism to communicate and relate everyday experiences mathematically.

In our quarterly, yearly, and half-yearly examinations, we should be ready for some loaded calculations involving some huge numbers. The questions are expected to be straight forward and they might even resemble some from NCERT and reference textbooks.

The questions in CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics test your adaptability to fast yet simple arithmetic with real-life numbers. You should not be afraid of dealing with sums of large numbers. Instead, you should be agile and vigilant for any errors on the part of your calculations.

It also expects you to reinforce logical reasoning skills. You are required to formulate and establish mathematical arguments, frame examples, find counterexamples, validate equations and others.

CBSE Financial Mathematics utilizes the application of other areas of mathematics too in addition to Arithmetic. Areas such as Algebraic methods are used as a means of representation. They are also used as a problem-solving tool in Class 12 Financial Mathematics. It is something that you should expect in the Class 12 Financial Mathematics Examination.

When you are thorough with this topic, you will know how to calculate your taxes. You will know how to find the value of an asset in the present time and based on its current value, you will also be able to predict it for a future date. You will also have developed a sound understanding of shares and Values of Stocks, Appreciation of assets, and their depreciation too.

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Preparation Tips

Preparing for CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics can seem challenging, but with the right approach, you can ace it. Here are some simple yet effective tips to help you succeed:

1. Understand the CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Syllabus:

• Familiarize yourself with the subject syllabus to know what topics to focus on. This understanding is crucial in your CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics journey.
2. Real-Life Examples Are Your Best Friends:

• Financial Mathematics is all about applying math to real-life financial scenarios. Incorporate everyday financial problems into your practice. It's not just about formulas; it's about solving practical money-related challenges.
3. Calculate Real-Life Finances:

• Take a hands-on approach by helping your parents with their taxes, EMIs, or stock shares. These experiences will deepen your understanding of financial concepts and their applications.
4. Reference Books are a Bonus:

• In addition to your CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics textbook, consider using reference books. They provide different perspectives and extra practice questions to hone your skills.
5. Practice Previous Year Papers:

• Solve previous years' CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics papers. This will familiarize you with the exam's format and the types of questions that can be asked. It's also excellent for time management and problem-solving skills.
6. Mental Math Matters:

• Don't overly rely on calculators. Challenge yourself to solve Financial Mathematics problems mentally. This practice improves calculation speed and memory, essential for tackling complex questions.

Remember, CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics is not just about exams; it's about building skills you can use in everyday life. By following these tips, you'll not only excel in your exams but also gain valuable financial knowledge for the future.

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Study Material

To ace the CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics exam, books and notes are your biggest friends and mock papers or previous year papers are your cheerleaders.

Books will help you stay on the right path because subjects such as mathematics have no boundary and you never know when you are reading something outside your syllabus and gathering irrelevant information.

Let us take a look at the list of CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics reference books that you can refer to while preparing for the Financial Mathematics Exam.

• NCERT
• Suncos, Handbook for Mathematics
• Master the NCERT Mathematics

Check Tips: CBSE Class 12 Applied Maths Algebra

CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Sample Questions

Practicing sample questions will help you develop an independent idea and understanding of the subject in depth. To help you get an idea about the type of questions that can be asked in the exam, we have provided few sample questions here.

1. Calculate the needed amount that must be invested every year so that the total amount sums up to Rs. 3,00,000 by the end of 10 years. The rate of interest is 10%, compounded annually.
2. Ram makes an investment of Rs. 3,000 for two years. He gets a rate of interest of 12%. Furthermore, calculate the future value of the investment.
3. Radha wants to retire from her job and get hold of Rs. 3,000/month. She wants the money to go to the future generation after she dies. She will earn an interest rate of 8% compounded annually. What is the total amount she will need to achieve the perpetuity goal?
4. Suppose that the rate of discount is 7%. So, how much one must pay to receive Rs. 50 that grows at an annual rate of 5%, forever?
5. Rahul plans on buying a 3-year bond having Rs. 1000 par value at an interest rate of 10%. Find the price at which one can purchase the bond after maturation at par and if Rahul requires the return of 14%.
• Rs. 915
• Rs. 907
• Rs. 902
• Rs. 917.

6. Find the EMI for a property that is mortgaged of principal amount Rs. 5,00,000 at a rate of interest, 3.5% for a period of 10 years.

• Rs. 1657
• Rs. 1647
• Rs. 1523
• Rs. 1547

7. In a bank, an amount of Rs. 20,000 is deposited for one year. The rate of interest is 8% per annum and is compounded semi-annually. What is the effective rate of interest?

• 8 per cent
• 8.08 per cent
• 8.16 per cent
• 8.22 per cent

Key Takeaways

1. Practical Life Skills: Financial Mathematics isn't just for exams; it equips you to handle real-life financial challenges, from taxes to investments.

2. Holistic Learning: It's not just about numbers; it integrates various math concepts, enhancing your problem-solving abilities.

3. Logical Thinking: You'll develop logical reasoning skills, essential for both exams and daily life decision-making.

4. Preparation Tips: Familiarize yourself with the syllabus, practice real-life problems, and utilize reference books for comprehensive learning.

5. Practice Matters: Solving previous year papers and practicing mental math can boost your exam performance.

6. Study Materials: Utilize the recommended reference books and notes to stay on track.

7. Sample Questions: Solve sample questions to deepen your understanding of key topics.

Read about: How to Get Good Marks in Maths Class 12 CBSE

I am stressed over Financial Mathematics? How to get over it?

What if I do badly in Financial Mathematics?

How to attempt CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Sample papers?

How to analyse CBSE Class 12 Financial Mathematics Sample paper Performance?

What if I don't get the marks I'm expecting in Financial Mathematics?

How do I deal with my family's disappointment if my results are not good in CBSE Class 12 Applied Maths?

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