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Let's understand Debentures in Company Law

Author : Shashwat Srivastava

Updated On : July 19, 2023


Reader's Digest: Curious about debentures in Company Law? Discover their vital role in financing and corporate governance. Dive into the world of debt instruments and how they can shape a company's financial landscape. Keep reading to gain valuable insights into this fascinating topic!

In the realm of company law, debentures hold significant importance as financial instruments that provide companies with a means of raising funds.

Debentures play a vital role in balancing the financial structure of a company, while also offering investors an avenue for fixed returns.

In this article, we will delve into the world of debentures, exploring their types, features, legal framework, issuance procedures, rights and obligations, as well as the role of debenture trustees.

So, let's unlock the secrets behind debentures in company law! ๐Ÿ’ฐ๐Ÿ”

What is a Debenture? ๐Ÿ“œ๐Ÿ’ผ

In the realm of company law, a debenture is a financial instrument that companies use to raise funds from investors. It serves as a form of loan or debt issued by a company, providing a fixed return to the debentureholders. Think of it as a way for companies to borrow money from individuals or institutions, promising regular interest payments and eventual repayment of the principal amount.

Debentures are an essential component of company financing, enabling businesses to access capital for various purposes, such as expansion, research and development, or debt refinancing. By issuing debentures, companies tap into the investment market, attracting individuals and organizations seeking fixed returns on their investments.

Unlike shares, which represent ownership in a company, debentures do not grant ownership rights. Instead, debentureholders hold the status of creditors to the company, with a legal claim on the assets and cash flows of the business. This makes debentures a secure form of investment, as they are backed by the company's assets or a specific security/collateral.

For companies, issuing debentures provides a means of diversifying their capital structure and balancing their funding sources. It offers a stable source of funds compared to bank loans, and the interest payments on debentures are tax-deductible, reducing the overall cost of borrowing. On the other hand, for investors, debentures provide a predictable income stream through regular interest payments and the assurance of principal repayment upon maturity.

Debentures play a significant role in company law, offering a win-win situation for both companies and investors. They enable businesses to raise capital efficiently while providing individuals and institutions with an attractive investment avenue. Understanding the dynamics of debentures in company law is essential for companies and investors alike, as it opens doors to financial growth and opportunities.

Provisions Governing Debentures: Understanding the Legal Framework ๐Ÿ“š๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ›๏ธ

In order to ensure a well-regulated system for debentures in company law, specific provisions within the Companies Act, 2013 govern the floatation, issue, and allotment of debentures. These provisions provide clarity and guidance to companies and investors alike. Let's explore the key sections and rules that shape the legal framework surrounding debentures.

  1. Definition: Section 2(30) of the Companies Act, 2013 This section provides the official definition of debentures within the context of company law. It lays down the parameters and characteristics of debentures, ensuring a clear understanding of this financial instrument.

  2. Nature of Debentures: Section 44 of the Companies Act, 2013 Section 44 elucidates the nature of debentures, shedding light on their legal status and role within the company's capital structure. This section helps establish the rights and obligations associated with debentures, safeguarding the interests of both the company and the debenture holders.

  3. Provisions for Issue and Allotment: Section 71 of the Companies Act, 2013 Section 71 of the Companies Act, 2013 lays out the specific provisions related to the issue and allotment of debentures. It outlines the procedures and requirements that companies must adhere to when issuing debentures, ensuring transparency and compliance throughout the process.

  4. Rules Governing Issue and Allotment: Rule 18 of the Companies (Share Capital and Debenture) Rules, 2014 Rule 18, formulated under the Companies (Share Capital and Debenture) Rules, 2014, provides detailed rules and regulations pertaining to the issue and allotment of debentures. These rules complement the provisions of Section 71, offering further guidance to companies on the proper procedures and compliance measures to be followed.

Together, these provisions and rules establish a robust legal framework that governs the issuance, allocation, and operation of debentures in company law. They serve as a foundation for companies and investors to engage in debenture transactions while maintaining transparency, accountability, and fair practices. By adhering to these provisions, companies can raise capital effectively, and investors can confidently participate in the debenture market.

It is crucial for both companies and investors to familiarize themselves with these provisions to ensure compliance and mitigate any legal risks associated with debentures. Understanding the legal framework empowers stakeholders to make informed decisions, protects their rights, and contributes to a healthy and thriving investment ecosystem.

Types of Debentures in Company Law

When it comes to kinds of debentures in company law, a wide array of options is available, catering to the specific requirements of both companies and investors. Let's explore the various kinds of debentures and their unique characteristics:

1. Secured Debentures ๐Ÿ”’

  • Secured debentures provide an added layer of security for investors.
  • These debentures are backed by specific assets or collateral of the issuing company.
  • In case of default, the debenture holders have the right to claim those assets to recover their investments.

2. Unsecured Debentures ๐Ÿ’ผ

  • Unlike secured debentures, unsecured debentures do not have specific collateral backing.
  • Investors rely solely on the creditworthiness and reputation of the issuing company.
  • While they may carry a higher risk, unsecured debentures often offer potentially higher returns.

3. Convertible Debentures ๐Ÿ”

  • Convertible debentures give investors the option to convert their debentures into equity shares of the issuing company.
  • This feature allows investors to benefit from any potential appreciation in the company's value.
  • It provides an opportunity to participate in the company's growth and potentially enjoy capital gains.

4. Non-Convertible Debentures ๐Ÿšซ๐Ÿ”

  • Non-convertible debentures, as the name suggests, do not have the option for conversion into equity shares.
  • These debentures offer a fixed return on investment and are preferred by investors seeking stability and regular income.

5. Redeemable Debentures โฐ๐Ÿ’ต

  • Redeemable debentures have a specified maturity date, upon which the issuing company is obligated to repay the principal amount to the debenture holders.
  • These debentures are suitable for investors who prefer a fixed-term investment with the assurance of capital repayment.

6. Irredeemable Debentures โš ๏ธ๐Ÿ’ต

  • Irredeemable debentures, also known as perpetual debentures, do not have a specific maturity date.
  • The issuing company is not obligated to repay the principal amount to debenture holders. Instead, the interest payments continue indefinitely.
  • Investors who seek long-term income streams may find these debentures appealing.

7. Registered Debentures ๐Ÿ“

  • Registered debentures are issued in the name of the debenture holders, and the company maintains a register to record the ownership details.
  • These debentures provide a clear record of ownership, allowing for ease of transfer and tracking of interests.

8. Bearer Debentures ๐Ÿ“œ

  • Bearer debentures, on the other hand, are not registered in the name of any specific individual.
  • They are negotiable instruments and can be transferred by mere delivery.
  • Bearer debentures offer anonymity to the holders and facilitate easy transferability.

Each type of debenture in company law comes with its own set of features and benefits. Companies can choose the appropriate type based on their funding requirements, while investors can select debentures that align with their risk appetite and investment goals. Understanding the nuances of these debenture categories empowers both companies and investors to make informed decisions and forge mutually beneficial partnerships. ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ’ก๐Ÿ’ฐ

Features and Characteristics of Debentures

Debentures in company law possess unique features and characteristics that make them an appealing investment option for both companies and investors. Let's explore these fascinating aspects that make debentures stand out in the financial landscape! ๐Ÿ’ซ๐Ÿ’ธ

  1. Fixed Interest Rate: One key feature of debentures is the provision of a fixed interest rate. When investors purchase debentures, they are guaranteed a predetermined rate of interest over the debenture's tenure. This predictable income stream makes debentures a reliable investment avenue, providing stability and financial planning opportunities for investors. ๐Ÿ’ฐ๐Ÿ’น

  2. Predetermined Maturity Date: Debentures come with a specific maturity date, which represents the period within which the issuing company is obligated to repay the principal amount to the debenture holder. This characteristic enables investors to plan their finances and align their investment goals with the anticipated cash inflow from the debenture investment. It adds a level of certainty to the investment process. โŒ›๐Ÿ“†๐Ÿ’ต

  3. Security Options: Debentures can be categorized as either secured or unsecured. Secured debentures are backed by specific company assets, which act as collateral, providing an added layer of protection to the debenture holder. On the other hand, unsecured debentures do not have any underlying assets as security. The choice between secured and unsecured debentures depends on the risk appetite of investors and the financial strength of the issuing company. ๐Ÿ”’๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿ”“

  4. Conversion Rights: Some debentures grant investors the option to convert them into shares of the issuing company. This feature allows debenture holders to potentially benefit from the future growth and success of the company by becoming shareholders. Conversion rights provide investors with flexibility and the opportunity to participate in the company's equity growth. It is an attractive feature that combines debt and equity instruments, offering potential capital appreciation. ๐Ÿ”„๐Ÿ“ˆ๐Ÿ“Š

  5. Specific Redemption Terms: Debentures may have specific redemption terms, outlining the conditions and timeline for repayment of the principal amount. These terms provide clarity on when and how the company will fulfill its repayment obligations to the debenture holders. By adhering to the predetermined redemption terms, the company ensures transparency and builds investor confidence in its financial commitments. ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ’ฐ

  6. Priority of Payment: In cases of insolvency or liquidation, debentures are ranked in a specific order of priority for payment. This ensures orderliness in the distribution of the company's assets among different creditors. Debenture holders often enjoy a higher priority compared to shareholders, which enhances the security of their investment. The prioritized payment structure safeguards the rights of debenture holders in challenging financial circumstances. ๐Ÿ“Š๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ›๏ธ

These distinctive features and characteristics of debentures make them a versatile financial tool in company law. Debentures provide a predictable income stream, align investment timelines, offer security options, present opportunities for capital appreciation, and establish a systematic repayment framework. Companies benefit from the flexibility of raising funds, while investors enjoy a diverse range of investment opportunities tailored to their preferences. It's the perfect synergy that empowers both companies and investors in the dynamic world of finance. ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ’ก๐Ÿ’ช

Legal Framework for Issuing Debentures

A. Provisions under the Companies Act and Relevant Sections

  • When it comes to issuing debentures, companies must adhere to the provisions (Section 71, Rule 18) outlined in the Companies Act. These provisions lay down the legal framework that governs debenture issuances.
  • These sections define the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of companies and debenture holders, ensuring a fair and transparent process.
  • By abiding by these provisions, companies can maintain compliance with the law and protect the interests of all parties involved. ๐Ÿ’ผโš–๏ธ

B. Regulatory Norms by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

  • In addition to the Companies Act, companies issuing debentures must also comply with regulatory norms established by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  • SEBI is the regulatory body responsible for overseeing securities markets in India. It sets guidelines and regulations that aim to protect the interests of investors, promote transparency, and maintain market integrity.
  • These regulations ensure that companies follow standardized practices and provide accurate information to potential investors.
  • By complying with SEBI's guidelines, companies contribute to a robust and trustworthy debenture market. ๐Ÿ“œ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ”’

C. Safeguarding Investors' Interests

  • The legal framework for issuing debentures in company law is designed to safeguard the interests of investors.
  • By adhering to the provisions of the Companies Act and complying with SEBI regulations, companies provide transparency and accountability, which are crucial for maintaining investor confidence.
  • These regulations require companies to disclose relevant information, such as financial statements, terms of the debenture issuance, and risks associated with the investment. Investors can make informed decisions based on this information, ensuring their interests are protected.
  • The legal framework also ensures that companies fulfill their obligations towards debenture holders, including regular interest payments and timely redemption of debentures. ๐Ÿ’ช๐Ÿ’ฐ๐Ÿ”’

D. Promoting Transparency and Market Integrity

  • The legal framework surrounding debentures in company law plays a vital role in promoting transparency and market integrity.
  • By imposing regulatory norms and requirements, it prevents fraudulent activities, misleading information, and unfair practices.
  • These regulations mandate accurate and timely disclosure of information, preventing companies from taking advantage of unsuspecting investors.
  • By maintaining transparency and integrity, the debenture market becomes a reliable and trustworthy avenue for companies to raise funds, while also attracting investors seeking stable investment options. ๐Ÿ•ต๏ธ‍โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ’ผ๐ŸŒŸ

The legal framework for issuing debentures in company law is built upon the Companies Act and regulatory norms set by SEBI. These regulations aim to protect the interests of investors, promote transparency, and maintain market integrity. By complying with these provisions, companies not only adhere to the law but also contribute to a fair and trustworthy debenture market. Investors can feel confident knowing that companies are bound by regulations that ensure transparency, accountability, and the fulfillment of their obligations. ๐Ÿ’ผโš–๏ธ๐Ÿ’ช

Procedure for Issuing Debentures

When it comes to issuing debentures in company law, following a well-defined procedure is essential. Let's walk through the process step-by-step, ensuring that all the necessary boxes are ticked along the way. ๐Ÿšถ‍โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿšถ‍โ™‚๏ธ

  1. Board Resolution and Shareholder Approval ๐Ÿ“โœ…

  • To kickstart the debenture issuance process, the company's board of directors must pass a resolution. This resolution outlines the intention to issue debentures and seeks approval from the shareholders.
  • It is crucial to obtain the consent of the shareholders, as they play a significant role in shaping the company's financial decisions.
  • Once the resolution receives the green light, the company can move forward with confidence. ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ‘ฅโœ…
  1. Drafting the Debenture Trust Deed โœ๏ธ๐Ÿ“‘

  • The next crucial step involves drafting a debenture trust deed. This document serves as a legally binding agreement between the company and the debenture holders, detailing the terms and conditions of the debenture issue.
  • The trust deed specifies important aspects such as interest rates, maturity dates, redemption terms, conversion rights (if any), and the ranking of debentures in priority of payment.
  • The trust deed acts as a blueprint, ensuring clarity and transparency for all parties involved. ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ›๏ธ๐Ÿ’ก
  1. Filing with the Registrar of Companies ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‹

  • To ensure compliance with legal requirements, the drafted debenture trust deed must be filed with the Registrar of Companies.
  • This step adds an official stamp to the debenture issuance process. The registrar verifies the validity and legality of the trust deed, ensuring that it aligns with the provisions of company law.
  • By completing this filing, the company demonstrates its commitment to transparency and adherence to regulatory guidelines. ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ›๏ธโœ…
  1. Allotment and Issuance of Debentures ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ“ˆ๐Ÿ’ฐ

  • With the necessary approvals and legal formalities in place, the company can proceed with the allotment and issuance of debentures. This involves allocating the debentures to the intended investors, be it individuals, institutions, or other entities.
  • The allotment process ensures a fair and equitable distribution of debentures among the interested parties. Once the debentures are allotted, they are officially issued to the respective debenture holders.
  • This step marks a significant milestone in the debenture issuance journey, as the investors become stakeholders in the company's financial growth. ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ”ข๐Ÿ“ˆ
  1. Listing and Trading on Stock Exchanges ๐Ÿ“ˆ๐Ÿ’ธ๐Ÿ’ผ

  • To provide liquidity and open up trading opportunities, companies may choose to list their debentures on recognized stock exchanges.
  • Listing on a stock exchange allows investors to buy, sell, or trade the debentures, providing them with flexibility and the potential for capital gains.
  • The listing process involves meeting the specific requirements set by the exchange, ensuring compliance with regulatory frameworks.
  • By listing debentures, companies enhance the marketability of their financial instruments and broaden the investor base. ๐Ÿ“ˆ๐Ÿ’ธ๐Ÿ”

Rights and Obligations of Debenture holders

Debenture holders hold a range of valuable rights and protections within the framework of company law. These rights are designed to empower investors and provide them with a sense of security in their financial endeavors. Let's explore these rights in detail:

1. Right to Regular Interest Payments: ๐Ÿ’ธ

Debenture holders have the right to receive regular interest payments from the issuing company. This ensures a predictable and steady income stream for the investors. Whether it's on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, companies must fulfill their obligation to make timely interest payments to debenture holders.

2. Right to Redemption: ๐Ÿ”„

Debenture holders hold the right to redeem their debentures upon maturity. This means that at the specified maturity date, investors have the option to reclaim the principal amount invested. This commitment to redemption provides a clear exit strategy for debenture holders, allowing them to recover their investment at the predetermined time.

3. Right to Access Information: ๐Ÿ“Š

Transparency is key when it comes to debentures. Debenture holders have the right to access information regarding the financial performance and activities of the issuing company. By being informed about the company's operations, investors can make well-informed decisions and assess the risk associated with their investments.

4. Voting Rights and Conversion Option: ๐Ÿ—ณ๏ธ๐Ÿ”„

In certain cases, debenture holders may be granted additional rights. This could include voting rights, allowing investors to participate in important decision-making processes of the company. Additionally, debenture holders may have the option to convert their debentures into shares of the company. This provides an opportunity for investors to become shareholders and potentially benefit from the company's growth and profitability.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Company

While debenture holders enjoy certain rights, it is essential to recognize the duties and responsibilities undertaken by the issuing company. These obligations are in place to maintain transparency and instill confidence in the market. Let's delve into the key responsibilities of the company:

1. Timely Interest Payments: โŒ›

Companies must make timely interest payments to debenture holders. This ensures a reliable income source for investors and builds trust in the company's financial commitments. By fulfilling this obligation, companies demonstrate their ability to meet their financial obligations and maintain a positive relationship with debenture holders.

2. Commitment to Redemption: ๐Ÿ’ผ

When issuing debentures, companies commit to redeeming them upon maturity. It is crucial for companies to honor this commitment and adhere to the specified terms and conditions. By fulfilling their obligation to redeem debentures, companies demonstrate their financial stability and reliability, enhancing investor confidence.

3. Maintenance of Security or Collateral: ๐Ÿ”’

In cases where debentures are secured against company assets, it is the responsibility of the company to maintain the security or collateral provided. This ensures that the debenture holders' interests are protected and that the value of the security remains intact throughout the debenture period.

4. Information Disclosure and Compliance: ๐Ÿ“

Companies are obligated to disclose relevant information to debenture holders. This includes financial reports, updates on the company's performance, and any other material information that may impact the investment. Furthermore, companies must comply with the terms and conditions agreed upon during the debenture issuance, ensuring transparency and accountability.

In summary, debenture holders enjoy rights such as receiving regular interest payments, the right to redemption, access to information, and in some cases, voting rights and conversion options. On the other hand, companies have duties and responsibilities that include making timely interest payments, honoring redemption commitments, maintaining security or collateral, and ensuring information disclosure and compliance. Together, these rights and obligations establish a fair and transparent framework for debentures in company law, benefiting both investors and companies alike. 

Debenture Trustee and its Role

  • When it comes to safeguarding the interests of debenture holders, a debenture trustee plays a crucial role in the world of debentures in company law. ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ๐Ÿ‘ฅ
  • These trustees are appointed based on their expertise and qualifications, ensuring that they possess the necessary knowledge to protect debenture holders' rights.
  • Acting as custodians, their primary duty is to ensure that the company fulfills its obligations towards the debenture holders.
  • They keep a watchful eye on the proper utilization of funds raised through debentures, ensuring that the company uses them as intended. In addition, they take the responsibility of safeguarding the security or collateral provided against the debentures. ๐Ÿ”’๐Ÿ’ผ
  • Should a company default or fail to comply with its obligations, the debenture trustee steps in to take necessary actions to protect the rights of the debenture holders.
  • This can include legal actions, negotiations, or seeking remedies to rectify the situation. The presence of a debenture trustee brings an added layer of security and trust to debenture transactions.
  • Investors can feel more confident knowing that there is an independent entity overseeing the company's compliance and protecting their interests. ๐Ÿ‘ฎ‍โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ’ช๐Ÿ’ผ

Debenture Redemption Reserve

In accordance with legal requirements, companies issuing debentures are obligated to create a Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR). This reserve acts as a safety net, ensuring that funds are available when the debentures mature. It serves as a tangible demonstration of a company's commitment to fulfilling its financial obligations towards the debenture holders. ๐Ÿ’ฐ๐Ÿ”’๐Ÿ’ผ

The creation and utilization of the DRR are governed by specific provisions, such as [mention relevant legal sections]. These regulations lay out the guidelines for companies to set aside a portion of their profits to contribute to the reserve. By maintaining the DRR, companies demonstrate their responsibility and dedication to meeting their obligations, instilling trust and confidence among debenture holders. ๐Ÿ’ช๐Ÿ“ˆ

The Debenture Redemption Reserve acts as a financial cushion, ensuring that the company has sufficient resources to honor its commitments when the debentures reach their maturity date. This provides reassurance to debenture holders, as they can rely on the reserve to safeguard their investments. By upholding the creation and utilization of the DRR, companies reinforce their credibility and financial stability, fostering a favorable environment for investors in the realm of debentures in company law. ๐Ÿ”’๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿ’ผ

Debenture Default and Remedies

In the unfortunate event that a company fails to meet its debenture obligations, the repercussions can be significant. Debenture defaults not only have the potential to trigger legal action but can also tarnish the company's reputation and adversely affect the financial well-being of debenture holders. However, the realm of company law provides various remedies to address such situations, ensuring the interests of both the company and its investors are safeguarded. Let's explore these remedies in detail. ๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ’ช

Debt Recovery Mechanisms: Pursuing What is Owed ๐Ÿ’ธ๐Ÿ’ผ

Debenture holders facing default have the right to pursue debt recovery mechanisms to reclaim what is rightfully theirs. These mechanisms empower investors to take legal action against the defaulting company, seeking repayment of the principal amount along with any accrued interest. By initiating debt recovery proceedings, debenture holders can utilize the legal system to enforce their rights and restore financial balance.

Legal Actions: Seeking Justice and Compensation โš–๏ธ๐Ÿ’ฐ

When a company defaults on its debenture obligations, debenture holders may resort to legal actions to seek justice and appropriate compensation. These legal actions can be filed in the appropriate court of law, enabling debenture holders to present their case and seek redress for the losses incurred due to the default. Legal proceedings aim to hold the defaulting company accountable for its actions, while also providing a platform for debenture holders to voice their grievances.

Negotiations and Settlements: Restoring Harmony and Trust ๐Ÿค๐Ÿ’ผ

In some cases, debenture holders and the defaulting company may choose to engage in negotiations and settlements as a means to resolve the default situation amicably. These negotiations allow both parties to explore alternative arrangements, such as restructuring the debt, extending the repayment timeline, or agreeing upon a revised interest rate. Through meaningful discussions and compromises, the company and debenture holders can work towards restoring harmony, trust, and financial stability.

Restoring Balance: Aiming for Equitable Solutions โš–๏ธ๐ŸŒŸ

The remedies available for debenture defaults under company law seek to restore the balance between the interests of the company and its investors. By providing avenues for debt recovery, legal actions, and negotiations, these remedies aim to ensure that debenture holders are not left financially stranded and that companies are held accountable for their obligations. The ultimate goal is to arrive at equitable solutions that mitigate the adverse effects of default and protect the rights and interests of all parties involved.

In cases where a company fails to fulfill its debenture obligations, the consequences can be severe. However, the legal framework offers various remedies to address such defaults, safeguarding the interests of debenture holders and promoting financial stability. Whether through debt recovery mechanisms, legal actions, or negotiations, these remedies seek to restore balance and ensure that both the company and its investors can navigate through challenging times. By upholding the principles of fairness and accountability, the debenture market can maintain its integrity and continue to foster growth and trust. ๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธโœจ


Understanding debentures in company law is crucial for both companies and investors. Debentures provide a flexible financing option while offering investors fixed returns.

By comprehending the types, features, legal framework, and procedures surrounding debentures, companies can effectively raise capital, and investors can make informed investment decisions.

Furthermore, the presence of debenture trustees, the maintenance of the Debenture Redemption Reserve, and the availability of remedies in case of default add layers of protection and confidence to the debenture market.

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