Syllogism is one of the interesting topics in Logical Reasoning subject. In most of the entrance exams, we come across questions from syllogism topics. But, many of you might be worried about how to solve Syllogism Questions and get them right.

To help you with this topic, we have come up with detailed information on the most commonly asked Syllogism questions, how to tackle them, and few tricks to solve them easily.

What is Syllogism?

Syllogisms are the logical argument of statements using deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion. According to Aristotle, syllogisms are a combination of general statements and specific statements using which a conclusion is deduced. 

Syllogisms comprise of three components: Major Premise, Minor Premise, and Conclusion. In most of the after 12th entrance exams like Common Law Aptitude Test and other degree examinations, we can observe syllogism questions. 

Let us understand these concepts with an example. 

  • All mammals are animals (major premise)
  • All elephants are mammals (minor premise)
  • Therefore, all elephants are mammals (the logic of two premises is the conclusion)

clat mock test

clat Mock test

Structure of Syllogisms

Syllogisms can be represented using a three-line structure, where A, B, and C are different terms:

  1. All A are B.
  2. All C are A.
  3. Therefore, all C are B.

We can also express the above structure in a different way:

  1. If A = B
  2. and C = A
  3. then C = B

Notice how the "A" functions as a kind of "middle" for the other terms. You could, for instance, write the syllogism as: C = A = B, therefore C = B.

Types of Syllogisms

There are more than fifty varieties of syllogisms identified over the years. Most of them are technical and uncertain. But, it is important to be aware of the most commonly used syllogisms. Here is the brief information on top three types of syllogisms. 

Universal Syllogisms

Universal syllogisms are called "universal" because they use words that apply completely and totally, such as "no" and "none" or "all" and "only." The two most common forms of universal syllogisms are:

"All A are B, and all C are A, so all C are B." (This is the most common type of syllogism.)

  1. All mammals are animals.
  2. All elephants are mammals.
  3. Therefore, all elephants are animals.

"No A are B, and all C are A, so no C are B."

  1. No mammals are frogs.
  2. All elephants are mammals.
  3. Therefore, no elephants are frogs.

Particular Syllogisms

Particular syllogisms use words like "some" or "most" instead of "all" or "none." Within this category, there are two main types:

"All A are B, and some C are A, therefore some C are B."

  1. All elephants have big ears.
  2. Some animals are elephants.
  3. Therefore, some animals have big ears.

"No A are B, and some C are A, therefore some C are not B."

  1. No doctors are children.
  2. Some immature people are doctors.
  3. Therefore, some immature people are not children.

Syllogism Practice Questions

Here are few syllogism questions asked in previous year CLAT Question Papers. Practice them to get an idea about different types of syllogism questions. 

Q. Choose the argument with the most logical sequence, that is, where the third statement is the logical conclusion of the first two.

(A) All girls are tall. All tall girls are beautiful. Some beautiful girls are tall.; (B) Some cars are birds. Some birds are chairs. Some chairs are tables.; (C) All pigs fly. All birds fly. Some birds are pigs.

  1. (A)
  2. (B)
  3. (C)
  4. all of the above

Q. Choose the argument with the most logical sequence, that is, where the third statement is the logical conclusion of the first two.

(A) All blue is big. All big is bright. All blue is bright.; (B) Some pink is white. Some pink is yellow. Some pink is neither white nor yellow.; (C) All eggs are white. All white is round. All eggs are big.

  1. (A) & (B)
  2. either (A) or (B)
  3. (C)
  4. (a) or (b)

Q. Read the questions to determine the most logical conclusions that follow the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

  • (A) All chairs are tables.
  • (B) All tables are windows.

Conclusions:

  • I. Some tables are chairs.                   
  • II. Some windows are chairs.

Mark your answers accordingly

  1. If only conclusion I follows.;
  2. If only conclusion II follows. ; 
  3. If either I or II follows.;
  4. If neither I nor II follows.; 
  5. If both follow.

Q. The following questions consist of five/six statements, each followed by options consisting of three statements put together in a specific order. Choose the best option which indicates a valid argument, that is, where the third statement is a conclusion drawn from the preceding two statements:

(A) No monsoon is a season.; (B) Some seasons are monsoons.; (C)  Some seasons are spring.; (D) No seasons are spring.; (E) Some monsoons are not spring.; (F) All monsoons are spring.

  1. (a) DFA
  2. (b) BEF
  3. (c) CBE
  4. (d) DEB

Q. (A) All crackers are pollutants.; (B) All crackers are noisy.; (C) All crackers are burst during Diwali.; (D)  All cars are pollutants.; (E) Some pollutants are crackers.

  1. (a) ABC
  2. (b) BCA
  3. (c) ADE
  4. (d) all of the above

Tips and Tricks to Solve Syllogism Questions

Here are few tricks you need to follow when you are solving syllogism questions. 

  • Always make Venn diagrams for the easy representation of the information in the question. Read all the statements given in the question one by one.
  • Try to figure out how to draw Venn Diagrams for each statement.
  • Observe if there are any familiar concepts or statements in the given syllogism.
  • Finding the conclusion will be your next step.
  • Figure out how to draw a conclusion for each concept/statement.
  • You need not memorize any statement or conclusion.
  • Make sure you understand the concept well and draw the Venn diagram accordingly.
  • The major part is to attempt the questions in a sequential manner.

FAQ's

What are syllogism questions?

The syllogism questions include statements and conclusions. You need to find out the right conclusion by understanding the given statements carefully. 

What are the three parts of syllogism questions?

The syllogism questions include three parts as listed below:

  • Major Premise
  • Minor Premise
  • Conclusion