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CLAT Passage Solving Questions for Critical Reasoning

Author : Palak Khanna

June 20, 2022

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In the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) there will be 28 to 32 questions that are asked from the logical reasoning subject.

The logical reasoning subject is widely divided into two parts i.e., Critical Reasoning and Logical Thinking. Out of 28-32 questions, around 13 to 16 questions are asked from the critical reasoning part.

Questions that include an argument, assumption, identifying the assumption of an argument, evaluating the argument, and deriving a conclusion are categorized under critical reasoning. 

Are you wondering what type of questions can be asked under this section? surpriseWell, this post shall walk you through some passage-solving questions for critical reasoning in CLAT, tricks to attempt questions quickly in the exam, and more.

So, what are you looking for? coolLet's dive into the post to know the type of questions asked from critical reasoning.

Types of Critical Reasoning Questions for CLAT 2023

In the CLAT exam, the logical reasoning section shall include comprehension-based passages followed by 4-5 multiple-choice questions.

While solving these questions, time Management in the CLAT exam plays a vital role in qualifying for the exam. Therefore, solving as many questions as possible from previous year's question papers will help your time management skills and speed in the final exam.

The following are some of the different types of critical reasoning questions that might appear in the upcoming exam. 

(1) Weaken the Argument

(2) Strengthen the Argument

(3) Supply the Assumption

(4) Supply the Conclusion

(5) Structure of the Argument

(6) The flaw in the Argument

(7) Paradox Questions

(8) Evaluate the Conclusion

Download FREE Study Material for CLAT Exam by LegalEdge

Passage Solving Questions for Critical Reasoning in CLAT

Below mentioned are some of the important passage-solving questions for the critical reasoning section for the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT).

Practicing these questions will help enhance your logical reasoning preparation for CLAT.

Passage No. 1 (Question 1 - Question 5)

The President of India has sent condolences to Vandana Mishra's family, after her death in Kanpur late Friday night, when the car carrying her to the hospital was stopped for the presidential convoy to pass. But while the president's response is in keeping with the obligations of his high office, the Kanpur tragedy is by no means unique. VVIP convoys have become yet another manifestation of a political and administrative culture where public servants' self-esteem depends on the distance they can maintain from the public. Police are overzealous because they respond to a system where public inconvenience is extremely low priority.

(1) VVIP convoys in Indian cities are particularly unwelcome. Most cities suffer terrible traffic congestion-in Mumbai it is estimated that a trip takes about 53% more time than it should, in Bengaluru 51%, and in New Delhi 47%. On top of this, there are few green corridors for ambulances. So, road blockades set up to smoothen VVIP movement worsen the situation painfully. There was hope following the 2017 Union Cabinet decision to end the lal batti raj. But long snaking VVIP convoys aren't part of this change. And MLAs from Haryana to Himachal Pradesh have tried to retain traffic privileges with flags atop their vehicles.

By contrast, in America the idea of holding up citizens for hours for the convenience of politicians would be laughable. (2) In New Zealand, when the PM's motorcade was caught over the speed limit, it was fined for dangerous driving In Scandinavian countries, far from reserving a faster lane for themselves, netas take public transport shoulder to shoulder with citizens. This is the direction our democracy must take too. For VVIP protection, the state must deploy smarter security arrangements, and nix those convoys. When public servants are driven, let the public not be driven to despair, or worse. 

(Extracted with edits and revisions from The Times of India)

Question (1). Which among the following is the most significant message conveyed by the author of the passage?

(a). The VVIP system is not suitable for countries like India since it causes inconvenience to common people.

(b). A public servant's self-esteem carries a lot more significance than that of a common man. 

(c). It is time that the state does away with convoys and brings up a smarter security system for VVIPs.

(d). The President should be held responsible for the death of Vandana Mishra.

Answer: (c)

Question (2). What is the role played by the statements marked [1] and [2]? 

(a). [1] and [2] are used as evidence to support two different claims of the author. 

(b). [1] is a claim of the author and [2] is used as evidence to support a subsequent argument.

(c). [1] is the main claim of the author and [2] is one of the claims of the author. 

(d). [1] is one of the claims of the author and [2] supports that claim.

Answer: (b)

Also Check: Short tricks to prepare for CLAT in one month

Question (3). What direction should India take from the various countries mentioned in the passage? 

  1. Hold up citizens for long hours for politicians.
  2. Levying a penalty on the vehicles of the politicians for violating traffic rules.

III. Oblige politicians to use public transport

(a). Only I

(b). Only II

(c). Both II and III

(d). All I, II, and III

Answer: (b)

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clat Mock test

Question (4). If the information set out in the passage is true, then which among the following must be true?

(a). The tragedy that happened due to the convoy of the President is one of the last such tragedies.

(b). At least one political and administrative manifestation should be done away in India.

(c). Deploying smarter security systems for VVIP convoys is a one-stop solution for the perils of democracy. 

(d). VVIP convoys should not be done away within a democracy such as India.

Answer: (b)

Question (5). While giving examples of Western countries, which among the following assumptions is made by the author?

(a). The traffic situation in Indian and Western countries is broadly similar.

(b). All countries being mentioned in examples are Democracies.

(c). Time is the essence of Life.

(d). Politicians should be held responsible for their actions.

Answer: (a)

Passage No. 2 (Question 6 to Question 10): 

Getting re-elected is a heady feeling. The incumbent leaders of Kerala, Assam and West Bengal have every right to be pleased with themselves and deserve kudos. Mamata Banerjee deserves special commendation for not just surviving but raising her party's vote share, in a battle in which she forsook the safety of her traditional seat and took the challenge to her local rival's home turf. However, it would be a mistake for these parties to think they just need to keep doing what they have been doing for a repeat performance five years from now.

Politics keeps changing, throwing up fresh challenges. Past achievement could lull the achievers into a false sense of complacence. That would be a big mistake. Pinarayi Vijayan in Kerala impressed the normally cynical Malayalis with his crisis management skills. However, the state cannot be in permanent crisis for him to keep impressing his voters. He needs new ideas for economic development of the state, beyond the welfarism he has perfected as part of crisis management. The BJP in Assam got a free pass, thanks to the listless Congress leadership of the state. What should have been the Congress leadership is with the BJP, leaving the Congress with the scion of its three-time chief minister to lead the party with few credentials other than his lineage. That would not be the case forever. The BJP needs to find a solution to the NRC crisis it has created.

Mamata Banerjee would do well to appreciate that the BJP's campaign against her appeasement politics has a lot of purchase among the people. Further, people expect less corruption and hate the culture of political violence. Even if successful politicians are ill disposed towards unsolicited advice.

[Extracted with edits and revisions from Economic Times]

Read more: Short tricks to enhance your GK preparation for CLAT

 Question (6). Out of the following, which option is the most appropriate main idea conveyed by the author in the passage?

(a). Mamata Banerjee must prove to her state that she is capable of being their leader.

(b). Leaders who are elected for the first time would do well to keep complacency out of their way.

(c). Getting re-elected does not give the leaders a licence for being complacent. 

(d). Re-election in the next election for the elected leaders is going to be a difficult task.

Answer: (c)

Question (7). Which among the following views can be reasonably attributed to the author? 

(a) Politics is a volatile field and adaptable people would do a lot better here. 

(b) Leaders do not have a right to celebrate for being re-elected as leaders of their states.

(c) The BJP in Assam did not have to work hard for being elected for the first time.

(d) None of the views can be reasonably attributed to the author.

Answer: (a) 

Question (8). Which among the following is an assumption made by the author? (Humble means not complacent).

(a) Parties are mistaken for thinking that they can keep doing what they did now and get reelected after 5 years.

(b) Being complacent for a leader who is re-elected is not impossible.

(c) Both a and b.

(d) Neither a nor b.

Answer: (b)

Question (9). What is the technique used by the author to frame his arguments? 

(a). The author gives a background, makes his claim and follows it with pieces of evidence.

(b). The author rejects a generalisation by showing that it fails to hold in another instance.

(c). The author makes a casual argument by providing illogical premises. 

(d). The author rejects an idea about a particular event, giving reasons for rejecting it.

Answer: (a)

Also Check: Top 5 tricks to enhance your CLAT Maths Preparation Tips

Question (10). Which among the following is true about the states and the leaders mentioned in the passage?

  1. Pinarayi Vijayan has performed well only when his state is going through a crisis.
  2. The problem of NRC has been created by the people of one of our neighbouring countries and the BJP should solve it.

III. Mamata Bannerjee's appeasement politics is not found to be affable among the people.

(a). Only I

(b). Only III

(c). Both I and III

(d). All I, II, and III

Answer: (b)

Passage No. 3 (Question.11 to Question.14)

Film makers around the world have often made extraordinary efforts to keep cinema alive. Under a repressive regime in Iran, directors such as Abbas Kiarostami, Mohsen Makhmalbaf and Majid Majidi fought for art as a basic social need with films like Where is the Friend's Home?, The Cyclist and Children of Heaven. In India, during the Emergency when the government apparatus came down heavily on any criticism, the prints of Amrit Nahata's political satire Kissa Kursi Ka, filmed in 1975, were destroyed. Even though a revised version was released in 1978, it invited several cuts from the Central Board of Film Certification. For the past few years, the CBFC has objected to the content of several films, ordering cuts. Now, a proposed amendment to the Cinematograph Act, 1952, will make it even more difficult for film-makers to work on thorny or controversial subjects. The draft Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill 2021, which has been put out for public comments, has a provision that allows the Government to order re-certification of a film already certified by the CBFC. Film makers argue that the new provision adds one more layer of censorship to the existing process. Already in April, the Government took the ordinance route to scrap the Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal (FCAT), a statutory body set up to hear appeals of film-makers against decisions of the CBFC.

In 2000, the Supreme Court had upheld the verdict of the Karnataka High Court in the K.M. Shankarappa vs Union of India case that the Union government cannot exercise revisional powers in respect of films that are already certified by the CBFC. The draft acknowledges the existing apex court order but has added a new clause: "...that on receipt of any references by the Central government in respect of a film certified for public exhibition, on account of violation of Section 5B (1) of the Act, the Central government may, if it considers it necessary so to do, direct the chairman of the board to re-examine the film. The provision of Section 5B (1) of the Act, the draft says, is derived from Article 19 (2) of the Constitution "which imposes reasonable restrictions upon the freedom of speech and expression in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India... New restrictive laws have come into place for over-the-top (OTT) platforms as well. Giving the Government powers to vet content not only curbs freedom of expression but also quella democratic dissent. Fresh barriers to content generation are a threat to the existing space for public discourse and are indicative of the current pressures on freedoms from authoritarian tendencies of the ruling establishment. (Extracted with edits and revisions from TheHindu)

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clat online coaching

Question (11). The central concern of the passage is: 

(a). New layer of censorship to cinema. 

(b). Difference between cinema around the world. 

(c). Implications of a Supreme Court order. 

(d). Functions of Central board of Film Certification.

Answer: (a)

Question (12). Out of the following options, the author suggests that:

(a). The Constitution makers of India committed an error by imposing some restrictions on Article 19(2).

(b). Some of the provisions of draft amendments sought to be made to the Cinematograph Act are unreasonable. 

(c). The government's proposal to the draft amendments are completely in-line with the SC's decision.

(d) Since the makers of the Constitution imposed reasonable restrictions on Article 19(2), they were undemocratic.

Answer: (b)

Question (13). What is the most appropriate message the author wants to convey when he talks about the prints of Amrit Nahata' 'Kissa Kursi ka?

(a). The author wants to suggest that Kissa Kursi ka was one of the finest novels of its time. (b). The author wants to prove that the lack of original content in Indian cinema is due to censorship. 

(c). The author wants to explain the degree of censorship that was prevalent during that time in India.

(d). The author wants to convey the difference between Indian cinema and Iran's cinema.

Answer: (c)

Also Check: Short tricks for CLAT English Including Comprehension

Question 14. Which among the following does not strengthen the government's stance about the Draft amendments to the Cinematograph Act?

  1. Last year, a film named 'Kranti' incited violence among the groups, this was not a one-off incident.
  2. India is not the first democratic country around the world to bring in new censorship laws.

III. Pakistan, a democratic country, brought a similar amendment law last year and its impact was quite visible on production of cinema that puts the government in bad light.

(a). Only I

(b). Only II

(c). Only III

(d). All I, II and III

Answer: (c)

Passage No. 4 (Question 15 to Question 17)

The natural processes which dispose of carbon dioxide are, in aggregate, rather slow, which means that an increase in the atmosphere's carbon-dioxide level will, left to itself, last a long time. In the face of such slow removal, the level of the gas can't be lowered simply by stabilizing the rate of emission; instead, emissions must be cut to zero. Because the harm the gas does is slow and cumulative, the benefits for any such cuts in emission I will be delayed and uncertain, whereas the costs are all up front. And gas's longevity means it is spread more or less evenly around the world, with the result that the fate of a country's climate depends not on its own emissions but on those of the world as a whole.

A challenge that requires fundamental shifts in the energy economy globally with benefits for a long time coming was never going to be an easy one to solve.

Question (15). Which of the following will follow the highlighted sentence? 

(a). That is why countries are worried about the health consequences of its populace

(b). That is why countries are investing in newer technologies.

(c). That is why countries are reluctant to cut carbon emissions to zero.

(d). That is why emissions cannot be cut to zero

Answer: (c)

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Question (16). According to the passage, if emission levels are cut to zero,

(a). Global warming can be arrested immediately.

(b). The benefits will be slow and cumulative.

(c). The benefits will be a long time coming.

(d). There will be no tangible results at all.

Answer: (c)

Question (17). According to the passage which of the following can be inferred?

(a). Countries are investing in technologies to dispose of carbon more quickly.

(b). Natural processes can be tweaked to dispose of carbon more quickly.

(c). Countries realize that ultimately carbon will be disposed of and there is no need to invest in emission technologies.

(d). As of now countries can only depend on national processes to dispose of carbon

Answer: (d)

Passage No. 5 (Question 18 and Question 19)

Most firms consider expert individuals to be too elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. Force such people to collaborate on a high-stakes project and they might come to fisticuffs. Even the very notion of managing such a group seems unimaginable. So most organizations fall into default mode, setting up project teams of people who get along nicely. The result is mediocrity.

Question (18). According to the passage which of the following options is true: 

(a). Experts are not worth the remuneration they are paid.

(b). Experts are intractable.

(c). Experts are replaced with manageable people.

(d). Manageable people accomplish high-stake projects with flying colours.

Options:

(I). All the four

(II). Only b, c and d

(III). Only b and c

(IV). None of the above

Answer: (III)

Question (19). According to the passage it can be inferred that:

(a). Experts are required for accomplishing a high-stake project.

(b). Neither teams of experts nor teams of amicable managers are good for high-stake projects.

(c). Amicable teams cannot complete a high-stake project.

(d). A team of experts are better managed when they are taught how to work in teams.

Answer: (b)

Passage No. 6 (Question 20 to Question 23)

What's more, as medical technology continues to improve, it is bringing people back from ever closer to the brink of death. A small, lucky handful of people have made full or nearly full recoveries after spending hours with no breath or pulse, buried in snow or submerged in very cold water. Surgeons sometimes create these conditions intentionally, chilling patients' bodies or stopping their hearts in order to perform complex, dangerous operations; recently they have begun trying out such techniques on severely injured trauma victims, keeping them between life and death until their wounds can be repaired.

Question (20) What is the tone of the passage?

(a). Cautiously optimistic

(b) Excited and exuberant

(c) Awe inspiring

(d) Objective

Answer: (c)

Question (21). According to the passage, with improvements in medical technology,

(a). Some people have been brought back from the brink of death.

(b). Few have been lucky enough to be brought back from the brink of death.

(c). Death is inevitable.

(d). Doctors are assuming the role of God.

Answer: (a)

Question (22). It is probably true that:

(a). People can be kept alive with the help of improved medical technology.

(b). Hearts can be stopped and started again

(c). People with no breath or pulse for several hours can be saved.

(d). Surgeons love their work

Options:

(1). None of the above

(2). Only a, b, and c

(3). All of the above.

(4). Only b

Answer: (2)

Question (23). If the information in the above passage is true, then which of the following must also be true?

(a). Medical technology will one day beat death altogether

(b). People aspire to live longer

(c). Medical technology is finding out ways to beat death

(d). Medical technology is finding out newer ways to beat death

Answer: (c)

Also Check: Short tricks to Score 42+ In CLAT Legal Aptitude & Reasoning

Passage No. 7 ( Question 24)

The offer of the government to make iodized salt available at a low price of one rupee per kilo is welcome, especially since the government seems to be so concerned about the ill effects of non- iodized salt. But it is doubtful whether the offer will actually be implemented. Way back in 1994, the government, in an earlier effort, had prepared reports outlining three new and simple but experimental methods for reducing the costs of iodization to about five paise per kilo. But these reports have remained just those- reports on paper.

Question (24). Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the author's contention that it is doubtful whether the offer will be actually implemented?

(a). The government proposes to save on costs by using the three methods it has already devised for iodization.

(b). The chain of fair-price distribution outlets now covers all the districts of the state.

(c). Many small-scale and joint-sector units have completed trials to use the three iodization

methods for regular production.

(d). The government which initiated the earlier effort is in place even today and has more information on the effects of monitor for all.

Answer: (c)

Frequently Asked Questions

You can prepare for the Logical Reasoning Section of the  CLAT syllabus in the following way,
Clear your concepts and understand the foundation of the topics that are included in the syllabus. Refer to good books that are well-approved. You must learn to manage time. You can do this by timing yourself when you solve practice question papers. Practice thoroughly on a regular basis and solve as many mock test papers and previous year papers as possible.
The books to use for the preparation of the Logical Reasoning section in CLAT Exam are provided below,

Some such books are mentioned below.

501 challenging Logical Reasoning Practice Book.

Universal’s Logical Reasoning for CLAT, LSAT, and other Law Entrance Exams by Jain Prateek.

Verbal Reasoning by RS Aggarwal

You can attempt the CLAT Logical Reasoning Questions in the exam in the following  way,

It is essential to recognize the conclusions and premises in a particular passage. 

The next step is to determine the tone or theme of the passage.If you have successfully decoded the theme or the point of the passage, then it will be easy for you to choose the answers.

You have to figure out the fine details and answer accordingly. The use of the word 'most' in the questions signifies that you have to pick an answer which best suits the question. 

It is important to read without any distractions and pauses.

They are most likely intended to test your adapting skills and your ability to soak in new facts and act accordingly without imposing previous knowledge.
Read the article for more information.

You can practise the Model papers that are offered by the CLAT Consortium. Apart from this, you can also practice the previous year's question papers from the LNAT and the LSAT. Although the examinations are quite different, it will help you to practice and know more about the topic of logical reasoning. Only with repeated practice can you excel in this section.
A total of 28-32 questions do come from the CLAT Reasoning Section. The important topics in this section are as follows,

Study Of Law: Important Court Decisions, Indian Contract Act.

Research Aptitude: Indian Constitution, Legal Fundamentals and terms.

Problem Solving Ability: Indian Penal Code

Questions based on hypothetical situations: Law of Torts

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CLAT Passage Solving Questions for Critical Reasoning

Author : Palak Khanna

Updated On : June 20, 2022

SHARE

In the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) there will be 28 to 32 questions that are asked from the logical reasoning subject.

The logical reasoning subject is widely divided into two parts i.e., Critical Reasoning and Logical Thinking. Out of 28-32 questions, around 13 to 16 questions are asked from the critical reasoning part.

Questions that include an argument, assumption, identifying the assumption of an argument, evaluating the argument, and deriving a conclusion are categorized under critical reasoning. 

Are you wondering what type of questions can be asked under this section? surpriseWell, this post shall walk you through some passage-solving questions for critical reasoning in CLAT, tricks to attempt questions quickly in the exam, and more.

So, what are you looking for? coolLet's dive into the post to know the type of questions asked from critical reasoning.

Types of Critical Reasoning Questions for CLAT 2023

In the CLAT exam, the logical reasoning section shall include comprehension-based passages followed by 4-5 multiple-choice questions.

While solving these questions, time Management in the CLAT exam plays a vital role in qualifying for the exam. Therefore, solving as many questions as possible from previous year's question papers will help your time management skills and speed in the final exam.

The following are some of the different types of critical reasoning questions that might appear in the upcoming exam. 

(1) Weaken the Argument

(2) Strengthen the Argument

(3) Supply the Assumption

(4) Supply the Conclusion

(5) Structure of the Argument

(6) The flaw in the Argument

(7) Paradox Questions

(8) Evaluate the Conclusion

Download FREE Study Material for CLAT Exam by LegalEdge

Passage Solving Questions for Critical Reasoning in CLAT

Below mentioned are some of the important passage-solving questions for the critical reasoning section for the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT).

Practicing these questions will help enhance your logical reasoning preparation for CLAT.

Passage No. 1 (Question 1 - Question 5)

The President of India has sent condolences to Vandana Mishra's family, after her death in Kanpur late Friday night, when the car carrying her to the hospital was stopped for the presidential convoy to pass. But while the president's response is in keeping with the obligations of his high office, the Kanpur tragedy is by no means unique. VVIP convoys have become yet another manifestation of a political and administrative culture where public servants' self-esteem depends on the distance they can maintain from the public. Police are overzealous because they respond to a system where public inconvenience is extremely low priority.

(1) VVIP convoys in Indian cities are particularly unwelcome. Most cities suffer terrible traffic congestion-in Mumbai it is estimated that a trip takes about 53% more time than it should, in Bengaluru 51%, and in New Delhi 47%. On top of this, there are few green corridors for ambulances. So, road blockades set up to smoothen VVIP movement worsen the situation painfully. There was hope following the 2017 Union Cabinet decision to end the lal batti raj. But long snaking VVIP convoys aren't part of this change. And MLAs from Haryana to Himachal Pradesh have tried to retain traffic privileges with flags atop their vehicles.

By contrast, in America the idea of holding up citizens for hours for the convenience of politicians would be laughable. (2) In New Zealand, when the PM's motorcade was caught over the speed limit, it was fined for dangerous driving In Scandinavian countries, far from reserving a faster lane for themselves, netas take public transport shoulder to shoulder with citizens. This is the direction our democracy must take too. For VVIP protection, the state must deploy smarter security arrangements, and nix those convoys. When public servants are driven, let the public not be driven to despair, or worse. 

(Extracted with edits and revisions from The Times of India)

Question (1). Which among the following is the most significant message conveyed by the author of the passage?

(a). The VVIP system is not suitable for countries like India since it causes inconvenience to common people.

(b). A public servant's self-esteem carries a lot more significance than that of a common man. 

(c). It is time that the state does away with convoys and brings up a smarter security system for VVIPs.

(d). The President should be held responsible for the death of Vandana Mishra.

Answer: (c)

Question (2). What is the role played by the statements marked [1] and [2]? 

(a). [1] and [2] are used as evidence to support two different claims of the author. 

(b). [1] is a claim of the author and [2] is used as evidence to support a subsequent argument.

(c). [1] is the main claim of the author and [2] is one of the claims of the author. 

(d). [1] is one of the claims of the author and [2] supports that claim.

Answer: (b)

Also Check: Short tricks to prepare for CLAT in one month

Question (3). What direction should India take from the various countries mentioned in the passage? 

  1. Hold up citizens for long hours for politicians.
  2. Levying a penalty on the vehicles of the politicians for violating traffic rules.

III. Oblige politicians to use public transport

(a). Only I

(b). Only II

(c). Both II and III

(d). All I, II, and III

Answer: (b)

clat mock test

clat Mock test

Question (4). If the information set out in the passage is true, then which among the following must be true?

(a). The tragedy that happened due to the convoy of the President is one of the last such tragedies.

(b). At least one political and administrative manifestation should be done away in India.

(c). Deploying smarter security systems for VVIP convoys is a one-stop solution for the perils of democracy. 

(d). VVIP convoys should not be done away within a democracy such as India.

Answer: (b)

Question (5). While giving examples of Western countries, which among the following assumptions is made by the author?

(a). The traffic situation in Indian and Western countries is broadly similar.

(b). All countries being mentioned in examples are Democracies.

(c). Time is the essence of Life.

(d). Politicians should be held responsible for their actions.

Answer: (a)

Passage No. 2 (Question 6 to Question 10): 

Getting re-elected is a heady feeling. The incumbent leaders of Kerala, Assam and West Bengal have every right to be pleased with themselves and deserve kudos. Mamata Banerjee deserves special commendation for not just surviving but raising her party's vote share, in a battle in which she forsook the safety of her traditional seat and took the challenge to her local rival's home turf. However, it would be a mistake for these parties to think they just need to keep doing what they have been doing for a repeat performance five years from now.

Politics keeps changing, throwing up fresh challenges. Past achievement could lull the achievers into a false sense of complacence. That would be a big mistake. Pinarayi Vijayan in Kerala impressed the normally cynical Malayalis with his crisis management skills. However, the state cannot be in permanent crisis for him to keep impressing his voters. He needs new ideas for economic development of the state, beyond the welfarism he has perfected as part of crisis management. The BJP in Assam got a free pass, thanks to the listless Congress leadership of the state. What should have been the Congress leadership is with the BJP, leaving the Congress with the scion of its three-time chief minister to lead the party with few credentials other than his lineage. That would not be the case forever. The BJP needs to find a solution to the NRC crisis it has created.

Mamata Banerjee would do well to appreciate that the BJP's campaign against her appeasement politics has a lot of purchase among the people. Further, people expect less corruption and hate the culture of political violence. Even if successful politicians are ill disposed towards unsolicited advice.

[Extracted with edits and revisions from Economic Times]

Read more: Short tricks to enhance your GK preparation for CLAT

 Question (6). Out of the following, which option is the most appropriate main idea conveyed by the author in the passage?

(a). Mamata Banerjee must prove to her state that she is capable of being their leader.

(b). Leaders who are elected for the first time would do well to keep complacency out of their way.

(c). Getting re-elected does not give the leaders a licence for being complacent. 

(d). Re-election in the next election for the elected leaders is going to be a difficult task.

Answer: (c)

Question (7). Which among the following views can be reasonably attributed to the author? 

(a) Politics is a volatile field and adaptable people would do a lot better here. 

(b) Leaders do not have a right to celebrate for being re-elected as leaders of their states.

(c) The BJP in Assam did not have to work hard for being elected for the first time.

(d) None of the views can be reasonably attributed to the author.

Answer: (a) 

Question (8). Which among the following is an assumption made by the author? (Humble means not complacent).

(a) Parties are mistaken for thinking that they can keep doing what they did now and get reelected after 5 years.

(b) Being complacent for a leader who is re-elected is not impossible.

(c) Both a and b.

(d) Neither a nor b.

Answer: (b)

Question (9). What is the technique used by the author to frame his arguments? 

(a). The author gives a background, makes his claim and follows it with pieces of evidence.

(b). The author rejects a generalisation by showing that it fails to hold in another instance.

(c). The author makes a casual argument by providing illogical premises. 

(d). The author rejects an idea about a particular event, giving reasons for rejecting it.

Answer: (a)

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Question (10). Which among the following is true about the states and the leaders mentioned in the passage?

  1. Pinarayi Vijayan has performed well only when his state is going through a crisis.
  2. The problem of NRC has been created by the people of one of our neighbouring countries and the BJP should solve it.

III. Mamata Bannerjee's appeasement politics is not found to be affable among the people.

(a). Only I

(b). Only III

(c). Both I and III

(d). All I, II, and III

Answer: (b)

Passage No. 3 (Question.11 to Question.14)

Film makers around the world have often made extraordinary efforts to keep cinema alive. Under a repressive regime in Iran, directors such as Abbas Kiarostami, Mohsen Makhmalbaf and Majid Majidi fought for art as a basic social need with films like Where is the Friend's Home?, The Cyclist and Children of Heaven. In India, during the Emergency when the government apparatus came down heavily on any criticism, the prints of Amrit Nahata's political satire Kissa Kursi Ka, filmed in 1975, were destroyed. Even though a revised version was released in 1978, it invited several cuts from the Central Board of Film Certification. For the past few years, the CBFC has objected to the content of several films, ordering cuts. Now, a proposed amendment to the Cinematograph Act, 1952, will make it even more difficult for film-makers to work on thorny or controversial subjects. The draft Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill 2021, which has been put out for public comments, has a provision that allows the Government to order re-certification of a film already certified by the CBFC. Film makers argue that the new provision adds one more layer of censorship to the existing process. Already in April, the Government took the ordinance route to scrap the Film Certificate Appellate Tribunal (FCAT), a statutory body set up to hear appeals of film-makers against decisions of the CBFC.

In 2000, the Supreme Court had upheld the verdict of the Karnataka High Court in the K.M. Shankarappa vs Union of India case that the Union government cannot exercise revisional powers in respect of films that are already certified by the CBFC. The draft acknowledges the existing apex court order but has added a new clause: "...that on receipt of any references by the Central government in respect of a film certified for public exhibition, on account of violation of Section 5B (1) of the Act, the Central government may, if it considers it necessary so to do, direct the chairman of the board to re-examine the film. The provision of Section 5B (1) of the Act, the draft says, is derived from Article 19 (2) of the Constitution "which imposes reasonable restrictions upon the freedom of speech and expression in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India... New restrictive laws have come into place for over-the-top (OTT) platforms as well. Giving the Government powers to vet content not only curbs freedom of expression but also quella democratic dissent. Fresh barriers to content generation are a threat to the existing space for public discourse and are indicative of the current pressures on freedoms from authoritarian tendencies of the ruling establishment. (Extracted with edits and revisions from TheHindu)

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Question (11). The central concern of the passage is: 

(a). New layer of censorship to cinema. 

(b). Difference between cinema around the world. 

(c). Implications of a Supreme Court order. 

(d). Functions of Central board of Film Certification.

Answer: (a)

Question (12). Out of the following options, the author suggests that:

(a). The Constitution makers of India committed an error by imposing some restrictions on Article 19(2).

(b). Some of the provisions of draft amendments sought to be made to the Cinematograph Act are unreasonable. 

(c). The government's proposal to the draft amendments are completely in-line with the SC's decision.

(d) Since the makers of the Constitution imposed reasonable restrictions on Article 19(2), they were undemocratic.

Answer: (b)

Question (13). What is the most appropriate message the author wants to convey when he talks about the prints of Amrit Nahata' 'Kissa Kursi ka?

(a). The author wants to suggest that Kissa Kursi ka was one of the finest novels of its time. (b). The author wants to prove that the lack of original content in Indian cinema is due to censorship. 

(c). The author wants to explain the degree of censorship that was prevalent during that time in India.

(d). The author wants to convey the difference between Indian cinema and Iran's cinema.

Answer: (c)

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Question 14. Which among the following does not strengthen the government's stance about the Draft amendments to the Cinematograph Act?

  1. Last year, a film named 'Kranti' incited violence among the groups, this was not a one-off incident.
  2. India is not the first democratic country around the world to bring in new censorship laws.

III. Pakistan, a democratic country, brought a similar amendment law last year and its impact was quite visible on production of cinema that puts the government in bad light.

(a). Only I

(b). Only II

(c). Only III

(d). All I, II and III

Answer: (c)

Passage No. 4 (Question 15 to Question 17)

The natural processes which dispose of carbon dioxide are, in aggregate, rather slow, which means that an increase in the atmosphere's carbon-dioxide level will, left to itself, last a long time. In the face of such slow removal, the level of the gas can't be lowered simply by stabilizing the rate of emission; instead, emissions must be cut to zero. Because the harm the gas does is slow and cumulative, the benefits for any such cuts in emission I will be delayed and uncertain, whereas the costs are all up front. And gas's longevity means it is spread more or less evenly around the world, with the result that the fate of a country's climate depends not on its own emissions but on those of the world as a whole.

A challenge that requires fundamental shifts in the energy economy globally with benefits for a long time coming was never going to be an easy one to solve.

Question (15). Which of the following will follow the highlighted sentence? 

(a). That is why countries are worried about the health consequences of its populace

(b). That is why countries are investing in newer technologies.

(c). That is why countries are reluctant to cut carbon emissions to zero.

(d). That is why emissions cannot be cut to zero

Answer: (c)

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Question (16). According to the passage, if emission levels are cut to zero,

(a). Global warming can be arrested immediately.

(b). The benefits will be slow and cumulative.

(c). The benefits will be a long time coming.

(d). There will be no tangible results at all.

Answer: (c)

Question (17). According to the passage which of the following can be inferred?

(a). Countries are investing in technologies to dispose of carbon more quickly.

(b). Natural processes can be tweaked to dispose of carbon more quickly.

(c). Countries realize that ultimately carbon will be disposed of and there is no need to invest in emission technologies.

(d). As of now countries can only depend on national processes to dispose of carbon

Answer: (d)

Passage No. 5 (Question 18 and Question 19)

Most firms consider expert individuals to be too elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. Force such people to collaborate on a high-stakes project and they might come to fisticuffs. Even the very notion of managing such a group seems unimaginable. So most organizations fall into default mode, setting up project teams of people who get along nicely. The result is mediocrity.

Question (18). According to the passage which of the following options is true: 

(a). Experts are not worth the remuneration they are paid.

(b). Experts are intractable.

(c). Experts are replaced with manageable people.

(d). Manageable people accomplish high-stake projects with flying colours.

Options:

(I). All the four

(II). Only b, c and d

(III). Only b and c

(IV). None of the above

Answer: (III)

Question (19). According to the passage it can be inferred that:

(a). Experts are required for accomplishing a high-stake project.

(b). Neither teams of experts nor teams of amicable managers are good for high-stake projects.

(c). Amicable teams cannot complete a high-stake project.

(d). A team of experts are better managed when they are taught how to work in teams.

Answer: (b)

Passage No. 6 (Question 20 to Question 23)

What's more, as medical technology continues to improve, it is bringing people back from ever closer to the brink of death. A small, lucky handful of people have made full or nearly full recoveries after spending hours with no breath or pulse, buried in snow or submerged in very cold water. Surgeons sometimes create these conditions intentionally, chilling patients' bodies or stopping their hearts in order to perform complex, dangerous operations; recently they have begun trying out such techniques on severely injured trauma victims, keeping them between life and death until their wounds can be repaired.

Question (20) What is the tone of the passage?

(a). Cautiously optimistic

(b) Excited and exuberant

(c) Awe inspiring

(d) Objective

Answer: (c)

Question (21). According to the passage, with improvements in medical technology,

(a). Some people have been brought back from the brink of death.

(b). Few have been lucky enough to be brought back from the brink of death.

(c). Death is inevitable.

(d). Doctors are assuming the role of God.

Answer: (a)

Question (22). It is probably true that:

(a). People can be kept alive with the help of improved medical technology.

(b). Hearts can be stopped and started again

(c). People with no breath or pulse for several hours can be saved.

(d). Surgeons love their work

Options:

(1). None of the above

(2). Only a, b, and c

(3). All of the above.

(4). Only b

Answer: (2)

Question (23). If the information in the above passage is true, then which of the following must also be true?

(a). Medical technology will one day beat death altogether

(b). People aspire to live longer

(c). Medical technology is finding out ways to beat death

(d). Medical technology is finding out newer ways to beat death

Answer: (c)

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Passage No. 7 ( Question 24)

The offer of the government to make iodized salt available at a low price of one rupee per kilo is welcome, especially since the government seems to be so concerned about the ill effects of non- iodized salt. But it is doubtful whether the offer will actually be implemented. Way back in 1994, the government, in an earlier effort, had prepared reports outlining three new and simple but experimental methods for reducing the costs of iodization to about five paise per kilo. But these reports have remained just those- reports on paper.

Question (24). Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the author's contention that it is doubtful whether the offer will be actually implemented?

(a). The government proposes to save on costs by using the three methods it has already devised for iodization.

(b). The chain of fair-price distribution outlets now covers all the districts of the state.

(c). Many small-scale and joint-sector units have completed trials to use the three iodization

methods for regular production.

(d). The government which initiated the earlier effort is in place even today and has more information on the effects of monitor for all.

Answer: (c)

Frequently Asked Questions

You can prepare for the Logical Reasoning Section of the  CLAT syllabus in the following way,
Clear your concepts and understand the foundation of the topics that are included in the syllabus. Refer to good books that are well-approved. You must learn to manage time. You can do this by timing yourself when you solve practice question papers. Practice thoroughly on a regular basis and solve as many mock test papers and previous year papers as possible.
The books to use for the preparation of the Logical Reasoning section in CLAT Exam are provided below,

Some such books are mentioned below.

501 challenging Logical Reasoning Practice Book.

Universal’s Logical Reasoning for CLAT, LSAT, and other Law Entrance Exams by Jain Prateek.

Verbal Reasoning by RS Aggarwal

You can attempt the CLAT Logical Reasoning Questions in the exam in the following  way,

It is essential to recognize the conclusions and premises in a particular passage. 

The next step is to determine the tone or theme of the passage.If you have successfully decoded the theme or the point of the passage, then it will be easy for you to choose the answers.

You have to figure out the fine details and answer accordingly. The use of the word 'most' in the questions signifies that you have to pick an answer which best suits the question. 

It is important to read without any distractions and pauses.

They are most likely intended to test your adapting skills and your ability to soak in new facts and act accordingly without imposing previous knowledge.
Read the article for more information.

You can practise the Model papers that are offered by the CLAT Consortium. Apart from this, you can also practice the previous year's question papers from the LNAT and the LSAT. Although the examinations are quite different, it will help you to practice and know more about the topic of logical reasoning. Only with repeated practice can you excel in this section.
A total of 28-32 questions do come from the CLAT Reasoning Section. The important topics in this section are as follows,

Study Of Law: Important Court Decisions, Indian Contract Act.

Research Aptitude: Indian Constitution, Legal Fundamentals and terms.

Problem Solving Ability: Indian Penal Code

Questions based on hypothetical situations: Law of Torts

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